A cohort of 661 patients (62% male; age 71 years; left ventricular ejection fraction 34%) was followed prospectively for 3 years. Quality of life questionnaires (Ladder of Life, RAND36, and Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire) and BNP levels were assessed at discharge after a hospital admission for HF. Three-year mortality was 42%. After adjustment for demographic variables, clinical variables, and BNP levels, poor quality of life scores predicted higher mortality; per 10 units on the physical functioning [hazard ratio (HR) 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–1.14] and general health (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01–1.16) dimensions of the RAND36. Patients with low scores on these dimensions were more likely to be in New York Heart Association class III–IV, diagnosed with co-morbidities, have suffered longer from HF, have lower estimated glomerular filtration rates, and have fewer beta-blocker prescriptions.
Hoekstra, T., Jaarsma, T., van Veldhuisen, D. J., Hillege, H. L., Sanderman, R., & Lesman-Leegte, I. (2013). Quality of life and survival in patients with heart failure. European Journal of Heart Failure, 15(1), 94-102. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurjhf/hfs148