This study investigated the influence of land use change and climate change on changes in streamflow in the Bengawan Solo River (BSR, 16 389 km2) basin, Indonesia. We applied the excess water and energy approach to three tributaries of the BSR, namely Pidekso, Madiun and Kening rivers, which represent the up-, mid-, and downstream parts of the BSR, respectively. This study used hydrological data from 1982−2013 and land use data for the years 1994 and 2013. The results show that from 1982 to 2013, the annual streamflow of the Pidekso and Madiun River increased, while in the Kening River it decreased. Based on attribution measures, the increasing streamflow trend in the Pidekso and Madiun rivers is mainly attributed to land use change, while the decreasing streamflow trend in the Kening River is mainly attributed to climate change. These conclusions are supported by statistical analyses and land use change analysis.