Biofilm accumulation in nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membrane elements results in a relative increase of normalised pressure drop (ΔNPD). However, an increase in ΔNPD is not exclusively linked to biofouling. In order to quantify biofouling, the biomass parameters adenosine triphosphate (ATP), total cell count and heterotrophic plate count in membrane elements were investigated during membrane autopsies and compared with ΔNPD in test rigs and 15 full scale investigations with different types of feed water. The combination of biomass related parameters ATP and total cell count in membrane elements seem to be suitable parameters for diagnosis of biofouling, whereas plate counts were not appropriate to assess biofouling. The applied ΔNPD measurement was too insensitive for early detection of fouling. Measurements of biological parameters in the water were shown to be not appropriate in quantifying biofouling. Evidently, there is a need for a practical tool, sensitive pressure drop data and systematic research.
- Water treatment
- Feed channel pressure drop
- Reverse osmosis
- Drinking water
Vrouwenvelder, J. S., Manolarakis, S. A., van der Hoek, J. P., van Paassen, J. A. M., van der Meer, W. G. J., van Agtmaal, J. M. C., ... Loosdrecht, M. C. M. (2008). Quantitative biofouling diagnosis in full scale nanofiltration and reverse osmosis installations. Water research, 42(19), 4856-4868. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2008.09.002