Quantitative Stent Graft Motion in ECG Gated CT by Image Registration and Segmentation: In Vitro Validation and Preliminary Clinical Results

Maaike A. Koenrades*, Esmeralda M. Struijs, Almar Klein, Hendrik Kuipers, Michel M.P.J. Reijnen, Cornelis H. Slump, Robert H. Geelkerken

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)
94 Downloads (Pure)


Objectives: The dynamic endovascular environment of stent grafts may influence long term outcome after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). The sealing and fixation of a stent graft to the aortic wall is challenged at every heartbeat, yet knowledge of the cardiac induced dynamics of stent grafts is sparse. Understanding the stent–artery interaction is crucial for device development and may aid the prediction of failure in the individual patient. The aim of this work was to establish quantitative stent graft motion in multiphasic electrocardiogram (ECG) gated computed tomography (CT) by image registration and segmentation techniques. Methods: Experimental validation was performed by evaluating a series of ECG gated CT scans of a stent graft moving at different amplitudes of displacement at different virtual heart rates using a motion generating device with synchronised ECG triggering. The methodology was further tested on clinical data of patients treated with EVAR devices with different stent graft designs. Displacement during the cardiac cycle was analysed for points on the fixating stent rings, the branches or fenestrations, and the spine. Results: Errors for the amplitude of displacement measured in vitro at individual points on the wire frame were at most 0.3 mm. In situ cardiac induced displacement of the devices was found to differ per location and also depended on the type of stent graft. Displacement during the cardiac cycle was greatest in a fenestrated device and smallest in a chimney graft sac anchoring endosystem, with maximum displacement varying from 0.0 to 1.4 mm. There was no substantial displacement measurable in the spine. Conclusions: A novel methodology to quantify and visualise stent graft motion in multiphasic ECG gated CT has been validated in vitro and tested in vivo. This methodology enables further exploration of in situ motion of different stent grafts and branch stents and their interaction with native vessels.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)746-755
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean journal of vascular and endovascular surgery
Issue number5
Early online date20 Sept 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2019


  • Dynamic quantification
  • ECG gated computed tomography
  • Endovascular aneurysm repair
  • Image registration
  • In vitro validation
  • Stent graft motion


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