Radiation transport and scaling of optical depth in Nd:YAG laser-produced microdroplet-tin plasma

R. Schupp, F. Torretti, R.A. Meijer, M. Bayraktar, J. Sheil, J. Scheers, D. Kurilovich, A. Bayerle, A.A. Schafgans, M. Purvis, K.S.E. Eikema, S. Witte, W. Ubachs, R. Hoekstra, O.O. Versolato*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

Experimental scaling relations of the optical depth are presented for the emission spectra of a tin-droplet-based, 1-μm-laser-produced plasma source of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) light. The observed changes in the complex spectral emission of the plasma over a wide range of droplet diameters (16-65 μm) and laser pulse durations (5-25 ns) are accurately captured in a scaling relation featuring the optical depth of the plasma as a single, pertinent parameter. The scans were performed at a constant laser intensity of 1.4 × 10 11 W/cm 2, which maximizes the emission in a 2% bandwidth around 13.5 nm relative to the total spectral energy, the bandwidth relevant for industrial EUV lithography. Using a one-dimensional radiation transport model, the relative optical depth of the plasma is found to linearly increase with the droplet size with a slope that increases with the laser pulse duration. For small droplets and short laser pulses, the fraction of light emitted in the 2% bandwidth around 13.5 nm relative to the total spectral energy is shown to reach high values of more than 14%, which may enable conversion efficiencies of Nd:YAG laser light into - industrially - useful EUV radiation rivaling those of current state-of-the-art CO 2-laser-driven sources.

Original languageEnglish
Article number124101
JournalApplied physics letters
Volume115
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 Sep 2019

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