Real-Time Monitoring of Nanoparticle Formation by FRET Imaging

Brenda L. Sanchez-Gaytan, Francois Fay, Sjoerd Hak, Amr Muhmed Sabry Abdelhakeem Alaarg, Zahi A. Fayad, Carlos Perez-Medina, Willem J.M. Mulder (Corresponding Author), Yiming Zhao (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)
105 Downloads (Pure)


Understanding the formation process of nanoparticles is of the utmost importance to improve their design and production. This especially holds true for self-assembled nanoparticles whose formation processes have been largely overlooked. Herein, we present a new technology that integrates a microfluidic-based nanoparticle synthesis method and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy imaging to visualize nanoparticle self-assembly in real time. Applied to different nanoparticle systems, for example, nanoemulsions, drug-loaded block-copolymer micelles, and nanocrystal-core reconstituted high-density lipoproteins, we have shown the approach's unique ability to investigate key parameters affecting nanoparticle formation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2923-2926
JournalAngewandte Chemie
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 23 Jan 2017


  • METIS-321795
  • IR-103742


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