Objective: In this study, we introduce a multi-modal sensing and feedback framework aimed at assisting clinicians during endovascular surgeries and catheterization procedures. This framework utilizes state-of-the-art imaging and sensing sub-systems to produce a 3D visualization of an endovascular catheter and surrounding vasculature without the need for intra-operative X-rays.
Methods: The catheterization experiments within this study are conducted inside a porcine limb undergoing motions. A hybrid position-force controller of a robotically-actuated ultrasound (US) transducer for uneven porcine tissue surfaces is introduced. The tissue, vasculature, and catheter are visualized by integrated real-time US images, 3D surface imaging, and Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors.
Results: During externally-induced limb motions, the vasculature and catheter can be reliably reconstructed at mean accuracies of 1.9 ± 0.3 mm and 0.82 ± 0.21 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The conventional use of intra-operative X-ray imaging to visualize instruments and vasculature in the human body can be reduced by employing improved diagnostic technologies that do not operate via ionizing radiation or nephrotoxic contrast agents.
Significance: The presented multi-modal framework enables the radiation-free and accurate reconstruction of significant tissues and instruments involved in catheterization procedures.
- Image-guided surgery
- Medical robotics
- Multi-modal sensing
- Robotic registration