Realizing Security Requirements with Physical Properties: A Case Study on Paper Voting

A. van Cleeff, T. Dimkov, Wolter Pieters, Roelf J. Wieringa

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    1 Citation (Scopus)


    Well-established security models exist for testing and proving the logical security of IT systems. For example, we can assert the strength of cryptographic protocols and hash functions that prevent attackers from unauthorized changes of data. By contrast, security models for physical security have received far less attention. This situation is problematic, especially because IT systems are converging with physical systems, as is the case when SCADA systems are controlling industrial processes, or digital door locks in apartment buildings are replacingphysical keys.In suchcases, it is necessary to understand the strengths, weaknesses and combinations of physical and digital security mechanisms. To realize this goal, we must first learnhow security requirements are realized by the physical environment alone and this paper presents a method for analyzing this, based on the KAOS requirements engineering framework. We demonstrate our method on a security-critical case, namely an election process with paper ballots. Our analysis yields a simple ontology of physical objects usedin this process, and their security-relevant properties such as visibility, inertness and spatial architecture. We conclude with a discussion of how our results can be applied to analyze and improve the security in other processesand perform trade-off analysis, ultimately contributing to models in which physical and logical security can be analyzed together.
    Original languageUndefined
    Title of host publicationProceedings of the International Conference on IT Convergence and Security (ICITCS 2011)
    EditorsKuinam J. Kim, Seong Jin Ahn
    Place of PublicationLondon
    Number of pages17
    ISBN (Print)978-94-007-2910-0
    Publication statusPublished - Dec 2011
    EventInternational Conference on IT Convergence and Security, ICITCS 2011 - Suwon, South Korea
    Duration: 14 Dec 201116 Dec 2011

    Publication series

    NameLecture Notes in Electrical Engineering
    PublisherSpringer Verlag
    ISSN (Print)1876-1100


    ConferenceInternational Conference on IT Convergence and Security, ICITCS 2011
    OtherDecember 14-16, 2011


    • METIS-285120
    • IR-79653
    • Electronic voting
    • KAOS
    • Security requirements engineering
    • EWI-21492
    • integrated security
    • paper-voting
    • SCS-Services
    • SCS-Cybersecurity
    • physical security

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