Structural characteristics in membranes formed by diffusion induced phase separation processes are discussed. Established theories on membrane formation from ternary systems can be extended to describe the effects of high or low molecular weight additives. A mechanism for the formation of nodular structures in the top layer of ultrafiltration membranes is presented. In the last part structures arising from polymer crystallization during immersion precipitation are discussed.
Wienk, I. M., Wienk, I. M., Boom, R. M., Boom, R. M., Beerlage, M. A. M., Beerlage, M. A. M., ... Strathmann, H. (1996). Recent advances in the formation of phase inversion membranes made from amorphous or semi-crystalline polymers. Journal of membrane science, 1996(113), 361-371. https://doi.org/10.1016/0376-7388(95)00256-1