Recommendations on nuclear and multimodality imaging in IE and CIED infections

Paola Anna Erba*, Patrizio Lancellotti, Isidre Vilacosta, Oliver Gaemperli, Francois Rouzet, Marcus Hacker, Alberto Signore, Riemer H.J.A. Slart, Gilbert Habib

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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In the latest update of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines for the management of infective endocarditis (IE), imaging is positioned at the centre of the diagnostic work-up so that an early and accurate diagnosis can be reached. Besides echocardiography, contrast-enhanced CT (ce-CT), radiolabelled leucocyte (white blood cell, WBC) SPECT/CT and [18F]FDG PET/CT are included as diagnostic tools in the diagnostic flow chart for IE. Following the clinical guidelines that provided a straightforward message on the role of multimodality imaging, we believe that it is highly relevant to produce specific recommendations on nuclear multimodality imaging in IE and cardiac implantable electronic device infections. In these procedural recommendations we therefore describe in detail the technical and practical aspects of WBC SPECT/CT and [18F]FDG PET/CT, including ce-CT acquisition protocols. We also discuss the advantages and limitations of each procedure, specific pitfalls when interpreting images, and the most important results from the literature, and also provide recommendations on the appropriate use of multimodality imaging.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1795-1815
Number of pages21
JournalEuropean journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2018


  • F PET/CT
  • Cardiac CT
  • Cardiac implantable electronic device
  • Echocardiography
  • Infection
  • Infective endocarditis
  • Radiolabelled WBC
  • n/a OA procedure


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