### Abstract

The authors have calculated the energy differences between the four members of the 2*1 family (b(2*1), c(4*2), p(2*2) and p(4*1)) of the Ge (001) surface by taking only electrostatic interactions between the dimers into account. They have found that p(2*2) is the lowest-energy reconstruction at zero temperature. The phase transitions from ordered p(2*2) to disordered (2*1) and ordered c(4*2) to disordered (2*1) are discussed using the authors' energy calculations, the mean-field approximation, the Ising model and Onsagers' exact solution. A second-order phase transition is found at about 200-250 K from an ordered p(2*2) (c(4*2)) dimer reconstruction to a disordered (2*1) dimer reconstruction assuming a charge transfer of 0.08e between the up atom and the down atom of the asymmetric dimer.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 409-415 |

Number of pages | 7 |

Journal | Journal of physics: Condensed matter |

Volume | 3 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 1991 |

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## Cite this

Zandvliet, H. J. W., Terpstra, D., & van Silfhout, A. (1991). Reconstructions and phase transitions of the Ge(100) surface.

*Journal of physics: Condensed matter*,*3*, 409-415. https://doi.org/10.1088/0953-8984/3/4/003