Recycling C/PPS laminates into long fibre thermoplastic composites by low shear mixing

Thomas A. de Bruijn, Guillaume Almire Vincent, Ferrie van Hattum

    Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

    3 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The increasing interest in continuous fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites has resulted in a rise of industrial waste. The recycling of the waste is topic of this study, aiming at high mechanical properties by retaining both a long fibre length and the matrix material. Consolidated continuous carbon fibres reinforced PPS laminate waste was collected, shredded to flakes of 20 mm on average and processed by a small scale and low-cost mixing machine at different volume fractions. The benefit of this machine resides in a low shear mixing phase that prevents fibre breakage but heats and mixes the material well. By a piston the charge was transferred into a compression mould for forming and consolidation of plates. Samples were cut and analysed by flexural bending tests. Cross-sectional microscopy was used to further analyse the composite quality and structure. Micro mechanical models of Tandon Weng and Kelly Tyson were used to predict the stiffness and strength depending on fibre orientation, fibre length and fibre content. Properties of the recycled material were compared to the predictions, to samples made of the virgin continues fibre material and to samples made of commercially available 3mm long pellets. Experimental values of the recycled material increase with fibre fraction at a sample rate, but slightly lower compared to theoretical values. At higher fibre content the properties limit out, not reaching continuous fibre laminates. Strength values show a trend similar to the one predicted by the random 2D Kelly-Tyson model. Microscopic images display a disentanglement of the woven structure from the input material. No significant difficulties were found during processing underlining the robustness of the studied process.
    Original languageEnglish
    Publication statusPublished - 2017
    Event21st International Conference on Composite Materials 2017 - Xi'an, China
    Duration: 20 Aug 201725 Aug 2017
    Conference number: 21
    http://www.iccm21.org/

    Conference

    Conference21st International Conference on Composite Materials 2017
    Abbreviated titleICCM 2017
    CountryChina
    CityXi'an
    Period20/08/1725/08/17
    Internet address

    Fingerprint

    Thermoplastics
    Laminates
    Recycling
    Fibers
    Composite materials
    Industrial wastes
    Bending tests
    Fiber reinforced materials
    Pistons
    Consolidation
    Carbon fibers
    Volume fraction
    Microscopic examination
    Compaction
    Stiffness
    Mechanical properties
    Processing
    Costs

    Keywords

    • thermoplastic composites
    • recycling
    • long fibre thermoplastics
    • compression moulding
    • low shear mixing

    Cite this

    de Bruijn, T. A., Vincent, G. A., & van Hattum, F. (2017). Recycling C/PPS laminates into long fibre thermoplastic composites by low shear mixing. Paper presented at 21st International Conference on Composite Materials 2017, Xi'an, China.
    de Bruijn, Thomas A. ; Vincent, Guillaume Almire ; van Hattum, Ferrie. / Recycling C/PPS laminates into long fibre thermoplastic composites by low shear mixing. Paper presented at 21st International Conference on Composite Materials 2017, Xi'an, China.
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    title = "Recycling C/PPS laminates into long fibre thermoplastic composites by low shear mixing",
    abstract = "The increasing interest in continuous fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites has resulted in a rise of industrial waste. The recycling of the waste is topic of this study, aiming at high mechanical properties by retaining both a long fibre length and the matrix material. Consolidated continuous carbon fibres reinforced PPS laminate waste was collected, shredded to flakes of 20 mm on average and processed by a small scale and low-cost mixing machine at different volume fractions. The benefit of this machine resides in a low shear mixing phase that prevents fibre breakage but heats and mixes the material well. By a piston the charge was transferred into a compression mould for forming and consolidation of plates. Samples were cut and analysed by flexural bending tests. Cross-sectional microscopy was used to further analyse the composite quality and structure. Micro mechanical models of Tandon Weng and Kelly Tyson were used to predict the stiffness and strength depending on fibre orientation, fibre length and fibre content. Properties of the recycled material were compared to the predictions, to samples made of the virgin continues fibre material and to samples made of commercially available 3mm long pellets. Experimental values of the recycled material increase with fibre fraction at a sample rate, but slightly lower compared to theoretical values. At higher fibre content the properties limit out, not reaching continuous fibre laminates. Strength values show a trend similar to the one predicted by the random 2D Kelly-Tyson model. Microscopic images display a disentanglement of the woven structure from the input material. No significant difficulties were found during processing underlining the robustness of the studied process.",
    keywords = "thermoplastic composites, recycling, long fibre thermoplastics, compression moulding, low shear mixing",
    author = "{de Bruijn}, {Thomas A.} and Vincent, {Guillaume Almire} and {van Hattum}, Ferrie",
    year = "2017",
    language = "English",
    note = "21st International Conference on Composite Materials 2017, ICCM 2017 ; Conference date: 20-08-2017 Through 25-08-2017",
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    de Bruijn, TA, Vincent, GA & van Hattum, F 2017, 'Recycling C/PPS laminates into long fibre thermoplastic composites by low shear mixing' Paper presented at 21st International Conference on Composite Materials 2017, Xi'an, China, 20/08/17 - 25/08/17, .

    Recycling C/PPS laminates into long fibre thermoplastic composites by low shear mixing. / de Bruijn, Thomas A.; Vincent, Guillaume Almire; van Hattum, Ferrie.

    2017. Paper presented at 21st International Conference on Composite Materials 2017, Xi'an, China.

    Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

    TY - CONF

    T1 - Recycling C/PPS laminates into long fibre thermoplastic composites by low shear mixing

    AU - de Bruijn, Thomas A.

    AU - Vincent, Guillaume Almire

    AU - van Hattum, Ferrie

    PY - 2017

    Y1 - 2017

    N2 - The increasing interest in continuous fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites has resulted in a rise of industrial waste. The recycling of the waste is topic of this study, aiming at high mechanical properties by retaining both a long fibre length and the matrix material. Consolidated continuous carbon fibres reinforced PPS laminate waste was collected, shredded to flakes of 20 mm on average and processed by a small scale and low-cost mixing machine at different volume fractions. The benefit of this machine resides in a low shear mixing phase that prevents fibre breakage but heats and mixes the material well. By a piston the charge was transferred into a compression mould for forming and consolidation of plates. Samples were cut and analysed by flexural bending tests. Cross-sectional microscopy was used to further analyse the composite quality and structure. Micro mechanical models of Tandon Weng and Kelly Tyson were used to predict the stiffness and strength depending on fibre orientation, fibre length and fibre content. Properties of the recycled material were compared to the predictions, to samples made of the virgin continues fibre material and to samples made of commercially available 3mm long pellets. Experimental values of the recycled material increase with fibre fraction at a sample rate, but slightly lower compared to theoretical values. At higher fibre content the properties limit out, not reaching continuous fibre laminates. Strength values show a trend similar to the one predicted by the random 2D Kelly-Tyson model. Microscopic images display a disentanglement of the woven structure from the input material. No significant difficulties were found during processing underlining the robustness of the studied process.

    AB - The increasing interest in continuous fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites has resulted in a rise of industrial waste. The recycling of the waste is topic of this study, aiming at high mechanical properties by retaining both a long fibre length and the matrix material. Consolidated continuous carbon fibres reinforced PPS laminate waste was collected, shredded to flakes of 20 mm on average and processed by a small scale and low-cost mixing machine at different volume fractions. The benefit of this machine resides in a low shear mixing phase that prevents fibre breakage but heats and mixes the material well. By a piston the charge was transferred into a compression mould for forming and consolidation of plates. Samples were cut and analysed by flexural bending tests. Cross-sectional microscopy was used to further analyse the composite quality and structure. Micro mechanical models of Tandon Weng and Kelly Tyson were used to predict the stiffness and strength depending on fibre orientation, fibre length and fibre content. Properties of the recycled material were compared to the predictions, to samples made of the virgin continues fibre material and to samples made of commercially available 3mm long pellets. Experimental values of the recycled material increase with fibre fraction at a sample rate, but slightly lower compared to theoretical values. At higher fibre content the properties limit out, not reaching continuous fibre laminates. Strength values show a trend similar to the one predicted by the random 2D Kelly-Tyson model. Microscopic images display a disentanglement of the woven structure from the input material. No significant difficulties were found during processing underlining the robustness of the studied process.

    KW - thermoplastic composites

    KW - recycling

    KW - long fibre thermoplastics

    KW - compression moulding

    KW - low shear mixing

    M3 - Paper

    ER -

    de Bruijn TA, Vincent GA, van Hattum F. Recycling C/PPS laminates into long fibre thermoplastic composites by low shear mixing. 2017. Paper presented at 21st International Conference on Composite Materials 2017, Xi'an, China.