Redox Cycling without reference electrodes

Sahana Sarkar, Klaus Mathwig, Shuo Kang, Albert F. Nieuwenhuis, Serge J.G. Lemay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


The reference electrode is a key component in electrochemical measurements, yet it remains a challenge to implement a reliable reference electrode in miniaturized electrochemical sensors. Here we explore experimentally and theoretically an alternative approach based on redox cycling which eliminates the reference electrode altogether. We show that shifts in the solution potential caused by the lack of reference can be understood quantitatively, and determine the requirements for accurate measurements in miniaturized systems in the absence of a reference electrode.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6052-6057
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - 2014


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