Reducing toxic chemical releases and transfers: Explaining outcomes for a voluntary program

Laurence J. O'Toole, Chilik Yu, James Cooley, Gail Cowie, Susan Crow, Terry DeMeo, Stephanie Herbert

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Relatively little is known about the possibilities and limitations of voluntary public programs. The so-called 33/50 Program for reducing releases of certain toxic chemicals into the environment provides a useful instance for examination. In an investigation of toxics-reduction outcomes, with states as units of analysis, economic and policy variables help to explain the results. In particular, channels and approaches used In communicating policy intentions are related to outcomes. Voluntary programs can make a difference, but the details of execution, including the extent and nature of field efforts, influence outcomes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11-26
Number of pages15
JournalPolicy studies journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1997


  • METIS-100211
  • IR-1667

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