Reducing user discomfort in direct load control of domestic water heaters

A. Belov, Alexandr Vasenev, Paul J.M. Havinga, Nirvana Meratnia, B.J. van der Zwaag

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

    9 Citations (Scopus)
    79 Downloads (Pure)


    Direct Load Control (DLC) is an effective instrument for achieving a guaranteed load curtailment. Unfortunately, if a customer considers that personal discomfort outweighs money savings after DLC shutting down of home appliances, DLC solution can be rejected. This paper proposes the way to remediate customer comfort concerns by pre-storing additional energy in electric loads before their disconnection from the grid. We take electric tank water heaters as an illustrative example of residential loads with storage. To illuminate our approach we first show how to balance electric consumption for pre-storing with user thermal discomfort for a single water heater. Then, we illustrate how the approach can be scaled-up to a multiple-boiler scenario, when ten remotely controlled boilers act next to fifty non-controlled boilers. The simulations for the latter case show that the expected user thermal discomfort can be significantly reduced at the cost of a reasonable increase of electricity demand preceding DLC event.
    Original languageUndefined
    Title of host publicationProceedings of the IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies - Asia (ISGT ASIA 2015)
    Place of PublicationUSA
    Number of pages6
    ISBN (Print)978-1-5090-1237-4
    Publication statusPublished - 6 Nov 2015
    Event2015 IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies - Asia, ISGT ASIA 2015 - Centara Grand and Bangkok Convention Center, Bangkok, Thailand
    Duration: 3 Nov 20156 Nov 2015

    Publication series

    NameIEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
    PublisherIEEE Computer Society
    ISSN (Print)1949-3053


    Conference2015 IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies - Asia, ISGT ASIA 2015
    Abbreviated titleISGT ASIA


    • Terms—Power system management
    • EWI-26715
    • SCS-Cybersecurity
    • Control Systems
    • IR-99193
    • Power system management
    • Power system stability
    • Optimal Control
    • METIS-315538
    • Power demand

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