ReflAct: Formative assessment for teacher reflection in video-coaching settings

Sara van der Linden*, Pantelis M. Papadopoulos, Nienke Nieveen, Susan McKenney

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Video coaching appears to be a promising approach for teachers' professional development, but is not automatically productive. To our knowledge, there are no tools to help coaches to formatively assess the quality of reflective talk. Such a tool is needed to help coaches realize the potential of reflective video coaching conversations. Key features of a minimally viable prototype were explored through a mixed-methods proof-of-concept study, focusing on (perceptions of) added value, compatibility, clarity, and tolerance. A total of 17 participants with insight into teachers' reflective practices participated in an online study. Data were collected through think-aloud protocols, interviews, surveys, and use logs. Findings showed modest, yet concrete evidence that a tool would be viable and is worth developing further. First, users indicated that it could add value in terms of development and calibration that outweighed the associated costs. Second, the tool was deemed compatible with improvement needs, though respondents pointed out that attention should be paid to user differences, and to strengthening familiarization opportunities. Third, seven sub-factors require explanation to increase the tool's clarity. Finally, the tool appeared tolerant of various modalities of use, but reasoning about the nature of reflective conversations requires support. Together, the results yield quality criteria that can be used for further development and evaluation, and the findings extend current theory on the collaborative learning and reflection of (pre- and in-service) teacher educators. Overall, this study illustrates how digital technology can facilitate operationalization of ambiguous processes like reflective talk, and highlights the importance of attending to the implementation early on.
Original languageEnglish
Article number104843
Number of pages15
JournalComputers & education
Early online date26 May 2023
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023


  • Video coaching
  • Professional development
  • ReflAct
  • Formative assessment
  • Teacher reflection
  • Teacher coaching
  • Pre-service teacher education
  • In-service teacher development
  • 2023 OA procedure


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