Regional differences of fMR signal changes induced by hyperventilation: Comparison between SE-EPI and GE-EPI at 3-T

Shinji Naganawa*, David G. Norris, Stefan Zysset, Toralf Mildner

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: To evaluate whether reproducible signal change of brain tissues by hyperventilation (HV) can be seen on spin-echo (SE)-echo planar imaging (EPI) at 3-T and to examine the sensitivity of SE-EPI for measuring vascular reactivity in regions of the brain, such as the hippocampal formation, that are difficult to visualize with gradient-echo (GE)-EPI due to susceptibility artifacts. Materials and Methods: Six healthy human subjects performed a voluntary HV task. The task design was as follows: Two minutes normal breathing (rest) followed by two minutes HV, giving a basic four-minute block that was repeated three times for a total scan time of 12 minutes for one run. Each subject performed the run both for SE-EPI and GE-EPI. Statistical analysis was performed to detect the area with significant cerebrovascular reactivity. The percentage signal change was also obtained for each cerebral region. Results: Both GE-EPI and SE-EPI showed globally significant signal decreases in the cerebral cortex. In GE-EPI, the frontal cortex showed a larger signal decrease than the other gray matter tissues (P < 0.05). In SE-EPI, the differences among gray matter tissues except for the hippocampal formation were not significant. The hippocampal formation showed the largest signal change (P < 0.05) in SE-EPI, but no significant signal change was observed in GE-EPI due to the presence of susceptibility artifacts. Conclusion: HV using SE-EPI at 3-T provides robust and reproducible signal decreases and may make the evaluation of the vascular reactivity in hippocampal formation feasible.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)23-30
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of magnetic resonance imaging
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2002
Externally publishedYes


  • Functional
  • Gradient-echo
  • Hyperventilation
  • Magnetic resonance
  • Spin-echo
  • Vascular reactivity
  • n/a OA procedure


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