Three studies of student regulation of learning were undertaken. In the first study, the temporal organization of the self-regulation process was examined within an individual learning context. Multilevel analysis showed linear and quadratic relations between self-regulation process and the phase of learning. An unexpected negative direct relation between self-regulation and test performance was only found for the process of “directing”. In the two other studies, collaborative computer learning within a 3D environment, on the one hand, and within the context of literacy practices, on the other hand, was examined. Self-regulative processes as “monitoring,” “directing,” and “testing” occurred less frequently than “grounding” and “common agreement” activities. In all three studies, the students rarely “orient” themselves towards the learning task. It is concluded that the adequacy of regulation and not the frequency is important for student learning.
- Primary and secondary education
- Group regulation