Reinforcement of natural rubber by precipitated silica: the influence of processing temperature

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Abstract

The thermal history and in particular the mixing dump temperature is a parameter of paramount importance in mixing rubber and silica with a silane coupling agent in order to achieve proper silanization of silica and to avoid premature scorch reactions. In this work, the influence of mixing dump temperature on the performance of silica reinforced Natural Rubber (NR) is investigated. The investigation also includes the effect of non-rubber constituents, primarily proteins in NR, by using deproteinized Natural Rubber (DPNR) and synthetic polyisoprene (IR). The vulcanization properties and rubber-to-filler interactions of silica reinforced NR in presence and absence of a silane coupling agent are highlighted. With increasing mixing dump temperature, the silanization reaction between silica and silane coupling agent proceeds further. At sufficiently high dump temperature, filler-filler interactions in the NR-silica compounds are reduced and silica-rubber interaction improved as evidenced by a drop in the Payne effect and increment in chemically bound rubber. It is demonstrated that NR and IR compounds mixed till above the optimum dump temperature exhibit cure reversion and reduction in tensile properties. On the other hand, DPNR-silica vulcanizates show slightly more constant physical properties.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 182nd American Chemical Society Rubber Division Meeting, Vol. 1
Place of PublicationCincinnati, Ohio USA
PublisherCurran Associates Inc.
Pages925-960
ISBN (Print)978-1-62276-469-3
Publication statusPublished - 9 Oct 2012
Event182nd Technical Meeting ACS Rubber Division 2012 - Cincinnati, United States
Duration: 9 Oct 201211 Oct 2012
Conference number: 182

Publication series

Name
PublisherCurran Associates

Conference

Conference182nd Technical Meeting ACS Rubber Division 2012
CountryUnited States
CityCincinnati
Period9/10/1211/10/12

Fingerprint

Reinforcement
Rubber
Silica
Processing
Temperature
Coupling agents
Silanes
Fillers
Polyisoprenes
Vulcanization
Tensile properties
Physical properties
Proteins

Keywords

  • METIS-294303
  • IR-86184

Cite this

Sarkawi, S. S., Dierkes, W. K., & Noordermeer, J. W. M. (2012). Reinforcement of natural rubber by precipitated silica: the influence of processing temperature. In Proceedings of the 182nd American Chemical Society Rubber Division Meeting, Vol. 1 (pp. 925-960). Cincinnati, Ohio USA: Curran Associates Inc..
Sarkawi, S.S. ; Dierkes, Wilma K. ; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M. / Reinforcement of natural rubber by precipitated silica: the influence of processing temperature. Proceedings of the 182nd American Chemical Society Rubber Division Meeting, Vol. 1. Cincinnati, Ohio USA : Curran Associates Inc., 2012. pp. 925-960
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abstract = "The thermal history and in particular the mixing dump temperature is a parameter of paramount importance in mixing rubber and silica with a silane coupling agent in order to achieve proper silanization of silica and to avoid premature scorch reactions. In this work, the influence of mixing dump temperature on the performance of silica reinforced Natural Rubber (NR) is investigated. The investigation also includes the effect of non-rubber constituents, primarily proteins in NR, by using deproteinized Natural Rubber (DPNR) and synthetic polyisoprene (IR). The vulcanization properties and rubber-to-filler interactions of silica reinforced NR in presence and absence of a silane coupling agent are highlighted. With increasing mixing dump temperature, the silanization reaction between silica and silane coupling agent proceeds further. At sufficiently high dump temperature, filler-filler interactions in the NR-silica compounds are reduced and silica-rubber interaction improved as evidenced by a drop in the Payne effect and increment in chemically bound rubber. It is demonstrated that NR and IR compounds mixed till above the optimum dump temperature exhibit cure reversion and reduction in tensile properties. On the other hand, DPNR-silica vulcanizates show slightly more constant physical properties.",
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Sarkawi, SS, Dierkes, WK & Noordermeer, JWM 2012, Reinforcement of natural rubber by precipitated silica: the influence of processing temperature. in Proceedings of the 182nd American Chemical Society Rubber Division Meeting, Vol. 1. Curran Associates Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio USA, pp. 925-960, 182nd Technical Meeting ACS Rubber Division 2012, Cincinnati, United States, 9/10/12.

Reinforcement of natural rubber by precipitated silica: the influence of processing temperature. / Sarkawi, S.S.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

Proceedings of the 182nd American Chemical Society Rubber Division Meeting, Vol. 1. Cincinnati, Ohio USA : Curran Associates Inc., 2012. p. 925-960.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademic

TY - GEN

T1 - Reinforcement of natural rubber by precipitated silica: the influence of processing temperature

AU - Sarkawi, S.S.

AU - Dierkes, Wilma K.

AU - Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

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N2 - The thermal history and in particular the mixing dump temperature is a parameter of paramount importance in mixing rubber and silica with a silane coupling agent in order to achieve proper silanization of silica and to avoid premature scorch reactions. In this work, the influence of mixing dump temperature on the performance of silica reinforced Natural Rubber (NR) is investigated. The investigation also includes the effect of non-rubber constituents, primarily proteins in NR, by using deproteinized Natural Rubber (DPNR) and synthetic polyisoprene (IR). The vulcanization properties and rubber-to-filler interactions of silica reinforced NR in presence and absence of a silane coupling agent are highlighted. With increasing mixing dump temperature, the silanization reaction between silica and silane coupling agent proceeds further. At sufficiently high dump temperature, filler-filler interactions in the NR-silica compounds are reduced and silica-rubber interaction improved as evidenced by a drop in the Payne effect and increment in chemically bound rubber. It is demonstrated that NR and IR compounds mixed till above the optimum dump temperature exhibit cure reversion and reduction in tensile properties. On the other hand, DPNR-silica vulcanizates show slightly more constant physical properties.

AB - The thermal history and in particular the mixing dump temperature is a parameter of paramount importance in mixing rubber and silica with a silane coupling agent in order to achieve proper silanization of silica and to avoid premature scorch reactions. In this work, the influence of mixing dump temperature on the performance of silica reinforced Natural Rubber (NR) is investigated. The investigation also includes the effect of non-rubber constituents, primarily proteins in NR, by using deproteinized Natural Rubber (DPNR) and synthetic polyisoprene (IR). The vulcanization properties and rubber-to-filler interactions of silica reinforced NR in presence and absence of a silane coupling agent are highlighted. With increasing mixing dump temperature, the silanization reaction between silica and silane coupling agent proceeds further. At sufficiently high dump temperature, filler-filler interactions in the NR-silica compounds are reduced and silica-rubber interaction improved as evidenced by a drop in the Payne effect and increment in chemically bound rubber. It is demonstrated that NR and IR compounds mixed till above the optimum dump temperature exhibit cure reversion and reduction in tensile properties. On the other hand, DPNR-silica vulcanizates show slightly more constant physical properties.

KW - METIS-294303

KW - IR-86184

M3 - Conference contribution

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EP - 960

BT - Proceedings of the 182nd American Chemical Society Rubber Division Meeting, Vol. 1

PB - Curran Associates Inc.

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Sarkawi SS, Dierkes WK, Noordermeer JWM. Reinforcement of natural rubber by precipitated silica: the influence of processing temperature. In Proceedings of the 182nd American Chemical Society Rubber Division Meeting, Vol. 1. Cincinnati, Ohio USA: Curran Associates Inc. 2012. p. 925-960