Remineralization of demineralized albumin-calcium phosphate coatings

Y. Liu, E.B. Hunziker, P. Layrolle, Clemens van Blitterswijk, P.D. Calvert, K. de Groot

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


Calcium phosphate and bovine serum albumin were coprecipitated (under physiological conditions of temperature and pH) upon the surfaces of titanium-alloy samples, which thereby became coated with a dense, proteinaceous mineral layer 30-50 µm in thickness. Dissolution of the inorganic phase by treatment with acidic saline yielded a self-supporting protein scaffold, 7-10 m in thickness. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the absence of inorganic components from the demineralized albumin scaffolds. When titanium-alloy samples bearing these demineralized protein scaffolds were immersed in a supersaturated solution of calcium phosphate (again at physiological temperature and pH), they remineralized. These redux albumin-calcium phosphate layers corresponded in thickness to the original coatings. When titanium-alloy discs bearing the demineralized protein scaffolds were implanted ectopically (subcutaneously) in mice, they, too, remineralized. No uniform mineral layer was deposited upon the surfaces of naked titanium-alloy implants. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of remineralization within the interstices of a noncollagenous protein scaffold, either in vitro or in vivo.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1155-1162
JournalJournal of biomedical materials research
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2003


  • Mineralization
  • Biomimetic coating
  • Protein scaffold
  • Titanium implant

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