Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key component of the hydrological cycle however it is also the most difficult factor to quantify. In recent decades, estimating ET has been improved by advances in remote sensing, particularly in agricultural studies. However, quantifying ET from mixed vegetation environs, particularly urban parklands, is still challenging due to the heterogeneity of plant species, canopy covers, microclimates, and because of costly methodological requirements. Several studies have recently been conducted in agriculture and forestry which may be useful for mixed landscape vegetation studies with some modifications. This review describes general remote sensing-based approaches to estimate ET and describes their advantages and disadvantages. Most of these approaches need extensive time investment, medium to high skill levels and are quite expensive. However, in addition to the reviewed methods, the authors recommend combining remotely sensed vegetation indices and ground-based techniques for ET estimation of mixed landscape vegetation such as urban parklands.
- satellite/airborne images
- remote sensing
- urban parklands
- spatial and temporal heterogeneity