Spectrum sensing is key to many applications like dynamicspectrum access (DSA) systems or telecom regulators who need to measure utilization of frequency bands. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) recommends a 10 dB threshold above the noise to decide whether a channel is occupied or not. However, radio frequency (RF) receiver front-ends are non-ideal. This means that the obtained data is distorted with noise and imperfections from the analog front-end. As part of the front-end the automatic gain control (AGC) circuitry mainly affects the sensing performance as strong adjacent signals lift the noise level. To enhance the performance of spectrum sensing significantly we focus in this article on techniques to remove the noise caused by the AGC from the sensing data. In order to do this we have applied matrix factorization techniques, i.e., SVD (singular value decomposition) and NMF (non-negative matrix factorization), which enables signal space analysis. In addition, we use live measurement results to verify the performance and to remove the effects of the AGC from the sensing data using above mentioned techniques, i.e., applied on block-wise available spectrum data. In this article it is shown that the occupancy in the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band, obtained by using energy detection (ITU recommended threshold), can be an overestimation of spectrum usage by 60%.
|Number of pages||19|
|Journal||EURASIP journal on advances in signal processing|
|Publication status||Published - 10 Apr 2013|