Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are a key constituent of excess sludge produced by Aerobic Sewage Sludge Treatment plants. The accumulation of significant amount of PHA inside aerobic microbial cells occurs when a surplus of an easily degradable carbon source (e.g., volatile fatty acids, VFA) is found in combination with other nutrients limitation. Herein, hydrothermal treatment (HT) of PHA-containing sludge at 300 and 375 °C was demonstrated to be effective in converting most (>70% w/w) of the bacterial PHA stored inside microbial cells into alkene/CO2 gas mixtures. Simultaneously, most of non-PHA biomass was converted into water-soluble compounds (50% carbon yield) that were acidogenic fermented to produce volatile fatty acids, ideal substrate to feed aerobic bacteria and produce more PHA. According to results here presented, HT of excess sludge with moderate (13%) PHA content can produce about 50 kg of alkenes per tonne of suspended solids treated, with a significant reduction of sludge mass (80% reduction of wet sludge volume) and consequent disposal cost.