Reproducibility in modeling and simulation of the knee: Academic, industry, and regulatory perspectives

Carl W. Imhauser*, Andrew P. Baumann, Xiangyi Liu, Jeffrey E. Bischoff, Nico Verdonschot, Benjamin J. Fregly, Shady S. Elmasry, Neda N. Abdollahi, Donald R. Hume, Nynke B. Rooks, Marco T.Y. Schneider, William Zaylor, Thor F. Besier, Jason P. Halloran, Kevin B. Shelburne, Ahmet Erdemir

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
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Stakeholders in the modeling and simulation (M&S) community organized a workshop at the 2019 Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society (ORS) entitled “Reproducibility in Modeling and Simulation of the Knee: Academic, Industry, and Regulatory Perspectives.” The goal was to discuss efforts among these stakeholders to address irreproducibility in M&S focusing on the knee joint. An academic representative from a leading orthopedic hospital in the United States described a multi-institutional, open effort funded by the National Institutes of Health to assess model reproducibility in computational knee biomechanics. A regulatory representative from the United States Food and Drug Administration indicated the necessity of standards for reproducibility to increase utility of M&S in the regulatory setting. An industry representative from a major orthopedic implant company emphasized improving reproducibility by addressing indeterminacy in personalized modeling through sensitivity analyses, thereby enhancing preclinical evaluation of joint replacement technology. Thought leaders in the M&S community stressed the importance of data sharing to minimize duplication of efforts. A survey comprised 103 attendees revealed strong support for the workshop and for increasing emphasis on computational modeling at future ORS meetings. Nearly all survey respondents (97%) considered reproducibility to be an important issue. Almost half of respondents (45%) tried and failed to reproduce the work of others. Two-thirds of respondents (67%) declared that individual laboratories are most responsible for ensuring reproducible research whereas 44% thought that journals are most responsible. Thought leaders and survey respondents emphasized that computational models must be reproducible and credible to advance knee M&S.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2569-2578
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of orthopaedic research
Issue number12
Early online date22 Jun 2023
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023


  • credibility
  • knee
  • modeling
  • regulatory
  • reproducibility
  • simulation
  • 2024 OA procedure


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