Revealing the effects of laser beam shaping on melt pool behaviour in conduction-mode laser melting

Amin Ebrahimi*, Mohammad Sattari, Aravind Babu, Arjun Sood, Gert Willem R.B.E. Römer, Marcel J.M. Hermans

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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Laser beam shaping offers remarkable possibilities to control and optimise process stability and tailor material properties and structure in laser-based welding and additive manufacturing. However, little is known about the influence of laser beam shaping on the complex melt-pool behaviour, solidified melt-track bead profile and microstructural grain morphology in laser material processing. A simulation-based approach is utilised in the present work to study the effects of laser beam intensity profile and angle of incidence on the melt-pool behaviour in conduction-mode laser melting of stainless steel 316L plates. The present high-fidelity physics-based computational model accounts for crucial physical phenomena in laser material processing such as complex laser–matter interaction, solidification and melting, heat and fluid flow dynamics, and free-surface oscillations. Experiments were carried out using different laser beam shapes and the validity of the numerical predictions is demonstrated. The results indicate that for identical processing parameters, reshaping the laser beam leads to notable changes in the thermal and fluid flow fields in the melt pool, affecting the melt-track bead profile and solidification microstructure. The columnar-to-equiaxed transition is discussed for different laser-intensity profiles.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3955-3967
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Materials Research and Technology
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2023


  • Bead profile
  • Fusion welding and additive manufacturing
  • High-fidelity numerical simulation
  • Laser beam shaping
  • Melt pool behaviour
  • Microstructural grain morphology


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