Review of technology specific degradation in crystalline silicon, cadmium telluride, copper indium gallium selenide, dye sensitised, organic and perovskite solar cells in photovoltaic modules: Understanding how reliability improvements in mature technologies can enhance emerging technologies

Jeff Kettle*, mohammadreza Aghaei, Shahzada Ahmad, Andrew Fairbrother, Stuart Irvine, Jesper Jacobsson, Samrana Kazim, Vaidotas Kazukauskas, Dan Lamb, Killian Lobato, G. E.O.R.G.I.O.S. Mousdis, Gernot Oreski, Angele Reinders, Jurriaan Schmitz, Pelin Yilmaz, Mirjam Theelen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)
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Abstract

A comprehensive understanding of failure modes of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules is key to extending their operational lifetime in the field. In this review, first, specific failure modes associated with mature PV technologies, such as crystalline silicon (c-Si), copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe), are framed by sources of specific failure modes, their development from the early-developmental stages onwards and their impact upon long term performance of PV modules. These failure modes are sorted by both PV technology and location of occurrence in PV modules, such as substrate, encapsulant, front and rear electrode, absorber and interlayers. The second part of the review is focused on emerging PV technologies, such as perovskites solar cells, dye sensitised and organic PVs, where due to their low to medium technology readiness levels, specific long-term degradation mechanisms have not fully emerged, and most mechanisms are only partially understood. However, an in-depth summary of the known stability challenges associated with each emerging PV technology is presented. Finally, in this paper, lessons learned from mature PV technologies are reviewed, and considerations are given in to how these might be applied to the further development of emerging technologies. Namely, any emerging PV technology must eventually pass industry-standard qualification tests, while warranties for the lifetime of modern c-Si-based modules might be extended beyond the existing warranted life of 25 years.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1365-1392
Number of pages28
JournalProgress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications
Volume30
Issue number12
Early online date15 Jun 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022

Keywords

  • Climate
  • Degradation
  • Energy payback time
  • Photovoltaics (PV)
  • Reliability
  • Solar cells
  • Solar photovoltaic modules
  • Stress
  • Wearout

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