Review of Topside Interconnections for Wide Bandgap Power Semiconductor Packaging

Lisheng Wang, Wenbo Wang*, Raymond J.E. Hueting, Gert Rietveld, Jan Abraham Ferreira

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)
857 Downloads (Pure)


Due to their superior material properties, wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductors enable the application of power electronics at higher temperature operation, higher frequencies, and higher efficiencies compared to silicon (Si). However, the commonly-used aluminum wire bonding as topside interconnection technology prevents WBG semiconductors from reaching their full potential, due to inherent parasitic inductances, large size, heat dissipation, and reliability issues of wire bonding technology. Therefore, this article presents a comprehensive review of topside interconnection technologies of WBG semiconductor power devices and modules. First, the challenges and driving factors for the interconnection of WBG semiconductor dies are discussed. Second, for each widely commercially used WBG semiconductor, i.e., silicon carbide and gallium nitride, technical details and innovative features of state-of-the-art interconnection techniques in packages are reviewed. Then, the majority of existing topside interconnection materials for WBG semiconductors are categorized and compared, followed by a discussion of their advantages, challenges, and failure modes. Based on this elaborate discussion, potential future directions of the interconnection technology development are given. It is concluded that the superior performance of WBG semiconductors can be obtained by combining novel materials with innovative designs for the topside interconnections.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)472-490
Number of pages19
JournalIEEE transactions on power electronics
Issue number1
Early online date22 Aug 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2023


  • Challenges
  • Gallium nitride (GaN)
  • Interconnection materials
  • Packaging
  • Power semiconductor devices
  • Semiconductor device reliability
  • Silicon carbide (SiC)
  • Topside interconnections
  • Wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductors
  • 2023 OA procedure


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