Roughness and adhesion effects on pre-sliding friction: modelling and experiments

Mohammad Bazrafshan

Research output: ThesisPhD Thesis - Research UT, graduation UTAcademic

87 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Controlling friction and adhesion at a wafer-waferstage interface is in direct relation with high precision and stability of the positioning mechanisms of a lithography machine. Understanding these two phenomena is the first and key step in controlling them. This thesis aims at developing a BEM (Boundary Element Method) model for an adhesive frictional contact of a rough interface, representing the wafer-waferstage interface, along with experiments to verify the validity of the model. The developed model consists of two main blocks which are interacting with one another: adhesion and pre-sliding friction.

Adhesion is considered to be dominated by the van der Waals forces (in vacuum conditions) and the capillary force (in ambient conditions). In the first step, a previously developed algorithm for the non-adhesive normal contact of rough surfaces is extended to include the adhesion effect due to van der Waals forces. This BEM model is further extended, in the second step, to account for the capillary force due to a humid environment and thin water films adsorbed on the contacting surfaces. In the developed model, the effects of various parameters, such as work of adhesion, roughness properties, and relative humidity are investigated. To verify the accuracy of the model, a series of pull-off force measurements, both in vacuum and ambient conditions, is conducted using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) at the contact of a cantilever with an SiO2 colloidal probe and a silicon wafer. The experimental results are then compared with the model predictions for the measured forces.

In the second block, a BEM model is developed for the pre-sliding behavior of a rough interface formed by two contacting surfaces. The adhesive terms are then embedded in this model. The influences of different parameters, such as work of adhesion and roughness parameters, on the friction hysteresis loops, pre-sliding displacement, and static friction force are studied. To validate the model, friction measurements are carried out in an in-house setup, named VAFT (Vacuum Adhesion-Friction Tester), for the contact of a polymeric ball against a silicon wafer under various normal loads.

The developed BEM model, as the output of this thesis, can be used as a tool to design textures on the waferstage in order to achieve a desirable level of friction and adhesion aiming at a higher level of precision, stability, and durability during the lithography process.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
  • University of Twente
Supervisors/Advisors
  • de Rooij, Matthias B., Supervisor
  • Schipper, Dirk J., Co-Supervisor
Award date21 Jun 2019
Place of PublicationEnschede
Publisher
Print ISBNs978-90-365-4785-7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 21 Jun 2019

Fingerprint

sliding friction
adhesion
roughness
boundary element method
friction
wafers
theses
Van der Waals forces
adhesives
vacuum
sliding
lithography
static friction
friction measurement
silicon
test equipment
durability
positioning
humidity
balls

Cite this

Bazrafshan, Mohammad. / Roughness and adhesion effects on pre-sliding friction : modelling and experiments. Enschede : University of Twente, 2019. 313 p.
@phdthesis{fc125c287d8b45fb9d80ebfdd8c07473,
title = "Roughness and adhesion effects on pre-sliding friction: modelling and experiments",
abstract = "Controlling friction and adhesion at a wafer-waferstage interface is in direct relation with high precision and stability of the positioning mechanisms of a lithography machine. Understanding these two phenomena is the first and key step in controlling them. This thesis aims at developing a BEM (Boundary Element Method) model for an adhesive frictional contact of a rough interface, representing the wafer-waferstage interface, along with experiments to verify the validity of the model. The developed model consists of two main blocks which are interacting with one another: adhesion and pre-sliding friction.Adhesion is considered to be dominated by the van der Waals forces (in vacuum conditions) and the capillary force (in ambient conditions). In the first step, a previously developed algorithm for the non-adhesive normal contact of rough surfaces is extended to include the adhesion effect due to van der Waals forces. This BEM model is further extended, in the second step, to account for the capillary force due to a humid environment and thin water films adsorbed on the contacting surfaces. In the developed model, the effects of various parameters, such as work of adhesion, roughness properties, and relative humidity are investigated. To verify the accuracy of the model, a series of pull-off force measurements, both in vacuum and ambient conditions, is conducted using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) at the contact of a cantilever with an SiO2 colloidal probe and a silicon wafer. The experimental results are then compared with the model predictions for the measured forces.In the second block, a BEM model is developed for the pre-sliding behavior of a rough interface formed by two contacting surfaces. The adhesive terms are then embedded in this model. The influences of different parameters, such as work of adhesion and roughness parameters, on the friction hysteresis loops, pre-sliding displacement, and static friction force are studied. To validate the model, friction measurements are carried out in an in-house setup, named VAFT (Vacuum Adhesion-Friction Tester), for the contact of a polymeric ball against a silicon wafer under various normal loads.The developed BEM model, as the output of this thesis, can be used as a tool to design textures on the waferstage in order to achieve a desirable level of friction and adhesion aiming at a higher level of precision, stability, and durability during the lithography process.",
author = "Mohammad Bazrafshan",
year = "2019",
month = "6",
day = "21",
doi = "10.3990/1.9789036547857",
language = "English",
isbn = "978-90-365-4785-7",
publisher = "University of Twente",
address = "Netherlands",
school = "University of Twente",

}

Roughness and adhesion effects on pre-sliding friction : modelling and experiments. / Bazrafshan, Mohammad.

Enschede : University of Twente, 2019. 313 p.

Research output: ThesisPhD Thesis - Research UT, graduation UTAcademic

TY - THES

T1 - Roughness and adhesion effects on pre-sliding friction

T2 - modelling and experiments

AU - Bazrafshan, Mohammad

PY - 2019/6/21

Y1 - 2019/6/21

N2 - Controlling friction and adhesion at a wafer-waferstage interface is in direct relation with high precision and stability of the positioning mechanisms of a lithography machine. Understanding these two phenomena is the first and key step in controlling them. This thesis aims at developing a BEM (Boundary Element Method) model for an adhesive frictional contact of a rough interface, representing the wafer-waferstage interface, along with experiments to verify the validity of the model. The developed model consists of two main blocks which are interacting with one another: adhesion and pre-sliding friction.Adhesion is considered to be dominated by the van der Waals forces (in vacuum conditions) and the capillary force (in ambient conditions). In the first step, a previously developed algorithm for the non-adhesive normal contact of rough surfaces is extended to include the adhesion effect due to van der Waals forces. This BEM model is further extended, in the second step, to account for the capillary force due to a humid environment and thin water films adsorbed on the contacting surfaces. In the developed model, the effects of various parameters, such as work of adhesion, roughness properties, and relative humidity are investigated. To verify the accuracy of the model, a series of pull-off force measurements, both in vacuum and ambient conditions, is conducted using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) at the contact of a cantilever with an SiO2 colloidal probe and a silicon wafer. The experimental results are then compared with the model predictions for the measured forces.In the second block, a BEM model is developed for the pre-sliding behavior of a rough interface formed by two contacting surfaces. The adhesive terms are then embedded in this model. The influences of different parameters, such as work of adhesion and roughness parameters, on the friction hysteresis loops, pre-sliding displacement, and static friction force are studied. To validate the model, friction measurements are carried out in an in-house setup, named VAFT (Vacuum Adhesion-Friction Tester), for the contact of a polymeric ball against a silicon wafer under various normal loads.The developed BEM model, as the output of this thesis, can be used as a tool to design textures on the waferstage in order to achieve a desirable level of friction and adhesion aiming at a higher level of precision, stability, and durability during the lithography process.

AB - Controlling friction and adhesion at a wafer-waferstage interface is in direct relation with high precision and stability of the positioning mechanisms of a lithography machine. Understanding these two phenomena is the first and key step in controlling them. This thesis aims at developing a BEM (Boundary Element Method) model for an adhesive frictional contact of a rough interface, representing the wafer-waferstage interface, along with experiments to verify the validity of the model. The developed model consists of two main blocks which are interacting with one another: adhesion and pre-sliding friction.Adhesion is considered to be dominated by the van der Waals forces (in vacuum conditions) and the capillary force (in ambient conditions). In the first step, a previously developed algorithm for the non-adhesive normal contact of rough surfaces is extended to include the adhesion effect due to van der Waals forces. This BEM model is further extended, in the second step, to account for the capillary force due to a humid environment and thin water films adsorbed on the contacting surfaces. In the developed model, the effects of various parameters, such as work of adhesion, roughness properties, and relative humidity are investigated. To verify the accuracy of the model, a series of pull-off force measurements, both in vacuum and ambient conditions, is conducted using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) at the contact of a cantilever with an SiO2 colloidal probe and a silicon wafer. The experimental results are then compared with the model predictions for the measured forces.In the second block, a BEM model is developed for the pre-sliding behavior of a rough interface formed by two contacting surfaces. The adhesive terms are then embedded in this model. The influences of different parameters, such as work of adhesion and roughness parameters, on the friction hysteresis loops, pre-sliding displacement, and static friction force are studied. To validate the model, friction measurements are carried out in an in-house setup, named VAFT (Vacuum Adhesion-Friction Tester), for the contact of a polymeric ball against a silicon wafer under various normal loads.The developed BEM model, as the output of this thesis, can be used as a tool to design textures on the waferstage in order to achieve a desirable level of friction and adhesion aiming at a higher level of precision, stability, and durability during the lithography process.

U2 - 10.3990/1.9789036547857

DO - 10.3990/1.9789036547857

M3 - PhD Thesis - Research UT, graduation UT

SN - 978-90-365-4785-7

PB - University of Twente

CY - Enschede

ER -