Safety Considerations in MRI

David G. Norris*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


This contribution provides a general overview of safety considerations for biomedical MRI and MRS. The rudimentary but real dangers associated with cryogens and projectiles are documented, as are potential interactions between living organisms and the static magnetic field. Known transient phenomena, that occur at static magnetic field strengths over 2 T are described. Epidemiologically relevant surveys are examined. The dangers posed by the switching of magnetic field gradients in terms of magneto-stimulation and acoustic noise are presented. The threshold for magneto-stimulation is best given by the hyperbolic formulation. A short summary of the heating effects of radiofrequency pulses is given. The threats associated with different types of implants are summarized and a brief mention of the risk of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in connection with Gadolinium-based contrast agents is made.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 2011


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