In this paper, we present a novel way to approach the interconnection of a continuous and a discrete time physical system first presented in  . This is done in a way which preserves passivity of the coupled system independently of the sampling time T. This strategy can be used both in the field of telemanipulation, for the implementation of a passive master/slave system on a digital transmission line with varying time delays and possible loss of packets (e.g., the Internet), and in the field of haptics, where the virtual environment should ‘feel’ like a physical equivalent system.
- CE-Advanced Robotics
Stramigioli, S., Secchi, C., van der Schaft, A., & Fantuzzi, C. (2005). Sampled Data Systems Passivity and Discrete Port-Hamiltonian Systems. IEEE transactions on robotics and automation, 21(4), 574-587. https://doi.org/10.1109/TRO.2004.842330