Scalable fabrication, compartmentalization and applications of living microtissues

Maik Schot, Nuno Araújo-Gomes, Bas van Loo, Tom Kamperman*, Jeroen Leijten

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
84 Downloads (Pure)


Living microtissues are used in a multitude of applications as they more closely resemble native tissue physiology, as compared to 2D cultures. Microtissues are typically composed of a combination of cells and materials in varying combinations, which are dictated by the applications’ design requirements. Their applications range wide, from fundamental biological research such as differentiation studies to industrial applications such as cruelty-free meat production. However, their translation to industrial and clinical settings has been hindered due to the lack of scalability of microtissue production techniques. Continuous microfluidic processes provide an opportunity to overcome this limitation as they offer higher throughput production rates as compared to traditional batch techniques, while maintaining reproducible control over microtissue composition and size. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current approaches to engineer microtissues with a focus on the advantages of, and need for, the use of continuous processes to produce microtissues in large quantities. Finally, an outlook is provided that outlines the required developments to enable large-scale microtissue fabrication using continuous processes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)392-405
Number of pages14
JournalBioactive Materials
Early online date27 Apr 2022
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023


  • Clinical translation
  • Industrial translation
  • Microfluidics
  • Micromaterials
  • Tissue engineering
  • Upscaling


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