Scalar transport and nucleation in quasi-two-dimensional starting jets and puffs

You An Lee*, Detlef Lohse, Sander G. Huisman

*Corresponding author for this work

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We experimentally investigate the early-stage scalar mixing and transport with solvent exchange in a quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) jet. We inject an ethanol/oil mixture upward into quiescent water, forming quasi-2D turbulent buoyant jets and triggering the ouzo effect with initial Reynolds numbers, Re0=420, 840, and 1680. We study two different modes of fluid supply: continuous injection to study a starting jet and finite volume injection to study a puff. While both modes start with the jet stage, the puff exhibits different characteristics in transport, entrainment, mixing, and nucleation, due to the lack of continuous fluid supply. We also inject a dyed ethanol solution as a passive scalar reference case, such that the effect of nucleation for the ethanol/oil mixture can be disentangled. For the starting jets, the total nucleated mass from the ouzo mixture seems very similar to that of the passive scalar total mass, indicating a primary nucleation site slightly above the virtual origin above the injection needle, supplying the mass flux like the passive scalar injection. With continuous mixing above the primary nucleation site, the mildly increasing nucleation rate suggests the occurrence of secondary nucleation throughout the entire ouzo jet. For the puffs, we show that the puff with the smallest Re0 propagates the fastest and its entrainment lasts the longest. We attribute the superior performance to the buoyancy effect, which transforms a turbulent puff into a turbulent thermal, and has been proven to have stronger entrainment. Although the entrainment and nucleation reduce drastically when the injection stops, the mild mixing still leads to non-zero nucleation rates and the reduced decay of the mean puff concentrations for the ouzo mixture. Adapting the theoretical framework established in Landel et al. (2012b) for quasi-2D turbulent jets and puffs, we successfully model the transport of the horizontally-integrated concentrations for the passive scalar. The fitted advection and dispersion coefficients are then used to model the transport of the ouzo mixture, from which the spatial–temporal evolution of the nucleation rate can be extracted. The spatial distribution of the nucleation rate sheds new light on the solvent exchange process in transient turbulent jet flows.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104556
JournalInternational journal of multiphase flow
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2023


  • Nucleation
  • Quasi-two-dimensional jet
  • Solvent exchange
  • Turbulent jet
  • UT-Hybrid-D


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