Scenario-based seismic hazard analysis using spectral element method in northeastern Pakistan

Saad Khan*, M. van der Meijde, H.M.A. van der Werff, Muhammad Shafique

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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Seismic hazard analysis is carried out in this study by estimating ground motion for hypothetical earthquakes in the area of Muzaffarabad, Pakistan, with the MT solution of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake. The earth’s topography influences seismic waves by scattering and reflecting it, thereby causing spatial variation in seismic response. Using the moment tensor solution of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake, we perform 25 spectral element method (SEM)-based 3D simulations along major faults in the study area. The SEM model incorporates the topography and homogeneous half-space characteristics. Our results show that, beside topography, the relative location of the source with respect to slopes also has an influence on the observed variation in ground shaking amplitudes. By integrating the mean and standard deviation of estimated ground shaking from 25 simulations, we present a seismic hazard map for the study area. The map summarizes the topographic and potential source location effect on seismic-induced ground shaking in the study area. It provides a classification from hazardous to safe in relative terms and can be used as a guide in earthquake preparedness.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2131-2144
Number of pages14
JournalNatural hazards
Issue number2
Early online date30 May 2020
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2020


  • Muzaffarabad
  • Scenario earthquake
  • Seismic hazard map
  • Spectral element method
  • Topographic amplification
  • UT-Hybrid-D

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