Gender differences in mathematics are well‐documented. This article reports the results of a longitudinal study on the development of mathematics achievement and choice behaviour of both boys and girls between 12 and 15 years of age in higher general secondary education. First of all, it is shown that there are differences in the development of mathematics achievement between schools. There are, however, no gender‐related differences between schools in these development patterns. The main issue is that differences in choice behaviour between boys and girls can only partially be explained by differences in mathematics achievement. It therefore seems worthwhile to assess the role of schools in this process. Results indicate that schools neither differ in gender differences in choice behaviour, nor in their potential to transform initial achievement differences between boys and girls into an inclination to choose mathematics as a final examination subject. In other words: differential school effects in terms of gender‐specific school effects could not be demonstrated.