Selective area growth and stencil lithography for in situ fabricated quantum devices

Peter Schüffelgen, Daniel Rosenbach, Chuan Li, Tobias W. Schmitt, Michael Schleenvoigt, Abdur R. Jalil, Sarah Schmitt, Jonas Kölzer, Meng Wang, Benjamin Bennemann, Umut Parlak, Lidia Kibkalo, Stefan Trellenkamp, Thomas Grap, Doris Meertens, Martina Luysberg, Gregor Mussler, Erwin Berenschot, Niels Tas, Alexander A. Golubov & 3 others Alexander Brinkman, Thomas Schäpers, Detlev Grützmacher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

The interplay of Dirac physics and induced superconductivity at the interface of a 3D topological insulator (TI) with an s-wave superconductor (S) provides a new platform for topologically protected quantum computation based on elusive Majorana modes. To employ such S–TI hybrid devices in future topological quantum computation architectures, a process is required that allows for device fabrication under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Here, we report on the selective area growth of (Bi,Sb)2Te3 TI thin films and stencil lithography of superconductive Nb for a full in situ fabrication of S–TI hybrid devices via molecular-beam epitaxy. A dielectric capping layer was deposited as a final step to protect the delicate surfaces of the S–TI hybrids at ambient conditions. Transport experiments in as-prepared Josephson junctions show highly transparent S–TI interfaces and a missing first Shapiro step, which indicates the presence of Majorana bound states. To move from single junctions towards complex circuitry for future topological quantum computation architectures, we monolithically integrated two aligned hardmasks to the substrate prior to growth. The presented process provides new possibilities to deliberately combine delicate quantum materials in situ at the nanoscale.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)825-831
Number of pages7
JournalNature nanotechnology
Volume14
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 29 Jul 2019

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Quantum computers
quantum computation
Lithography
lithography
insulators
Fabrication
fabrication
Ultrahigh vacuum
Superconductivity
Molecular beam epitaxy
Josephson junctions
ultrahigh vacuum
Superconducting materials
molecular beam epitaxy
superconductivity
Physics
platforms
Thin films
physics
Substrates

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Schüffelgen, P., Rosenbach, D., Li, C., Schmitt, T. W., Schleenvoigt, M., Jalil, A. R., ... Grützmacher, D. (2019). Selective area growth and stencil lithography for in situ fabricated quantum devices. Nature nanotechnology, 14(9), 825-831. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41565-019-0506-y
Schüffelgen, Peter ; Rosenbach, Daniel ; Li, Chuan ; Schmitt, Tobias W. ; Schleenvoigt, Michael ; Jalil, Abdur R. ; Schmitt, Sarah ; Kölzer, Jonas ; Wang, Meng ; Bennemann, Benjamin ; Parlak, Umut ; Kibkalo, Lidia ; Trellenkamp, Stefan ; Grap, Thomas ; Meertens, Doris ; Luysberg, Martina ; Mussler, Gregor ; Berenschot, Erwin ; Tas, Niels ; Golubov, Alexander A. ; Brinkman, Alexander ; Schäpers, Thomas ; Grützmacher, Detlev. / Selective area growth and stencil lithography for in situ fabricated quantum devices. In: Nature nanotechnology. 2019 ; Vol. 14, No. 9. pp. 825-831.
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Schüffelgen, P, Rosenbach, D, Li, C, Schmitt, TW, Schleenvoigt, M, Jalil, AR, Schmitt, S, Kölzer, J, Wang, M, Bennemann, B, Parlak, U, Kibkalo, L, Trellenkamp, S, Grap, T, Meertens, D, Luysberg, M, Mussler, G, Berenschot, E, Tas, N, Golubov, AA, Brinkman, A, Schäpers, T & Grützmacher, D 2019, 'Selective area growth and stencil lithography for in situ fabricated quantum devices' Nature nanotechnology, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 825-831. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41565-019-0506-y

Selective area growth and stencil lithography for in situ fabricated quantum devices. / Schüffelgen, Peter; Rosenbach, Daniel; Li, Chuan; Schmitt, Tobias W.; Schleenvoigt, Michael; Jalil, Abdur R.; Schmitt, Sarah; Kölzer, Jonas; Wang, Meng; Bennemann, Benjamin; Parlak, Umut; Kibkalo, Lidia; Trellenkamp, Stefan; Grap, Thomas; Meertens, Doris; Luysberg, Martina; Mussler, Gregor; Berenschot, Erwin; Tas, Niels; Golubov, Alexander A.; Brinkman, Alexander; Schäpers, Thomas; Grützmacher, Detlev.

In: Nature nanotechnology, Vol. 14, No. 9, 29.07.2019, p. 825-831.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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AU - Rosenbach, Daniel

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AU - Jalil, Abdur R.

AU - Schmitt, Sarah

AU - Kölzer, Jonas

AU - Wang, Meng

AU - Bennemann, Benjamin

AU - Parlak, Umut

AU - Kibkalo, Lidia

AU - Trellenkamp, Stefan

AU - Grap, Thomas

AU - Meertens, Doris

AU - Luysberg, Martina

AU - Mussler, Gregor

AU - Berenschot, Erwin

AU - Tas, Niels

AU - Golubov, Alexander A.

AU - Brinkman, Alexander

AU - Schäpers, Thomas

AU - Grützmacher, Detlev

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N2 - The interplay of Dirac physics and induced superconductivity at the interface of a 3D topological insulator (TI) with an s-wave superconductor (S) provides a new platform for topologically protected quantum computation based on elusive Majorana modes. To employ such S–TI hybrid devices in future topological quantum computation architectures, a process is required that allows for device fabrication under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Here, we report on the selective area growth of (Bi,Sb)2Te3 TI thin films and stencil lithography of superconductive Nb for a full in situ fabrication of S–TI hybrid devices via molecular-beam epitaxy. A dielectric capping layer was deposited as a final step to protect the delicate surfaces of the S–TI hybrids at ambient conditions. Transport experiments in as-prepared Josephson junctions show highly transparent S–TI interfaces and a missing first Shapiro step, which indicates the presence of Majorana bound states. To move from single junctions towards complex circuitry for future topological quantum computation architectures, we monolithically integrated two aligned hardmasks to the substrate prior to growth. The presented process provides new possibilities to deliberately combine delicate quantum materials in situ at the nanoscale.

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Schüffelgen P, Rosenbach D, Li C, Schmitt TW, Schleenvoigt M, Jalil AR et al. Selective area growth and stencil lithography for in situ fabricated quantum devices. Nature nanotechnology. 2019 Jul 29;14(9):825-831. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41565-019-0506-y