SENS-U: Continuous home monitoring of natural nocturnal bladder filling in children with nocturnal enuresis – a feasibility study

W.M.J. Kwinten, P.G. van Leuteren*, M. van Duren–van Iersel, P. Dik, P.E. Jira

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
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Introduction: Enuresis is a common problem in children. One treatment option is a wetting alarm that provides an alarm when incontinence occurs. A drawback of this approach is that the child is still awakened by wet sheets. Recently, a wearable, wireless ultrasonic bladder sensor became available, the SENS-U, which has the potential to prevent the enuretic event by waking up the child before the bladder is full. In this first feasibility study, the aim is to perform a night-time, home-based evaluation of the SENS-U in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE). Patients and methods: In this study, children (6–12 years) with MNE were included for a one-night monitoring session. During the night, the SENS-U continuously (i.e. every 30 s) estimated the filling status [notifications were deactivated]. In addition, urine volume was collected in a measurement cup (or diaper weight). The total measured natural nocturnal bladder filling (NNBF) cycles was analyzed by descriptive statistics. Before and after the measurement, sleep behavior was assessed by a selection of the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Results: Fifteen patients (boys/girls: 13/2) [mean age: 8.6 ± 1.5 years] have been enrolled. One patient was excluded due to inadequate sensor-to-skin contact. For 14 children, 18 NNBF cycles were recorded (voiding diary) of which three patients (21%) had more than one NNBF cycle. The SENS-U was able to successfully detect 83% of the NNBF cycles. The three missed NNBF cycles had a voided volume ≤30 ml, which was at the lower limit of the sensor's detection range. The SENS-U had no effect on sleeping behavior. Conclusion: The SENS-U was able to monitor the natural nocturnal bladder filling successfully in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis at home, without disturbing their sleep. Future research focuses on investigating the usability of the SENS-U for both diagnostic – and treatment purposes.[Formula presented]

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)196.e1-196.e6
JournalJournal of Pediatric Urology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2020


  • Children
  • Enuresis
  • Home monitoring
  • Real-time ultrasound
  • Wearable
  • UT-Hybrid-D
  • n/a OA procedure


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