The coupling of finite element simulations to mathematical optimization techniques has contributed significantly to product improvements and cost reductions in the metal forming industries. The next challenge is to bridge the gap between deterministic optimization techniques and the industrial need for robustness. This paper introduces a generally applicable strategy for modeling and efficiently solving robust optimization problems based on time consuming simulations. Noise variables and their effect on the responses are taken into account explicitly. The robust optimization strategy consists of four main stages: modeling, sensitivity analysis, robust optimization and sequential robust optimization. Use is made of a metamodel-based optimization approach to couple the computationally expensive finite element simulations with the robust optimization procedure. The initial metamodel approximation will only serve to find a first estimate of the robust optimum. Sequential optimization steps are subsequently applied to efficiently increase the accuracy of the response prediction at regions of interest containing the optimal robust design. The applicability of the proposed robust optimization strategy is demonstrated by the sequential robust optimization of an analytical test function and an industrial V-bending process. For the industrial application, several production trial runs have been performed to investigate and validate the robustness of the production process. For both applications, it is shown that the robust optimization strategy accounts for the effect of different sources of uncertainty onto the process responses in a very efficient manner. Moreover, application of the methodology to the industrial V-bending process results in valuable process insights and an improved robust process design.
Wiebenga, J. H., van den Boogaard, A. H., & Klaseboer, G. (2012). Sequential robust optimization of a V-bending process using numerical simulations. Structural and multidisciplinary optimization, 46(1), 137-153. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00158-012-0761-0