Silane grafted natural rubber and its compatibilization effect on silica-reinforced rubber tire compounds

K. Sengloyluan, K. Sahakaro, W. K. Dierkes, J. W.M. Noordermeer

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11 Citations (Scopus)
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Abstract

Natural Rubber (NR) grafted with 3-octanoylthio-1-propyltriethoxysilane (NXT) was prepared by melt mixing using 1,1′-di(tert-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane as initiator at 140 °C with NXT contents of 10 and 20 parts per hundred rubber [phr] and initiator 0.1 phr. The silane grafted on NR molecules was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and scanning electron icroscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Based on1H-NMR, the use of 10 and 20 phr (parts per hundred resin) of silane resulted in grafted NXT onto NR of 0.66 and 1.32 mol%, respectively, or a grafting efficiency of approx.38%. The use of NXT-grafted NR as compatibilizer in silica-filled NR compounds, to give a total amount of NXT in both grafted and non-grafted forms in the range of 0.8-6.1 wt% relative to the silica, decreases the Mooney viscosity and Payne effect of the compounds, improves filler-rubber interaction, and significantly increases the tensile properties of the silica-filled NR-compounds compared to the non-compatibilized one. At the same silane-content, the use of silane-grafted NR gives slightly better properties than the straight use of the same silane. With sulfur compensation, the use of NXT-grafted-NR with about 6 wt% NXT relative to the silica gives technical properties that reach the levels obtained for straight use of bis-(3-triethoxysilyl-propyl) tetrasulfide (TESPT) at 8.6 wt% relative to the silica.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1003-1022
Number of pages20
JournalExpress polymer letters
Volume11
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2017

Fingerprint

Silanes
tires
Compatibilizers
Rubber
rubber
Tires
silanes
Silicon Dioxide
Silica
silicon dioxide
Nuclear magnetic resonance
initiators
nuclear magnetic resonance
proton magnetic resonance
tensile properties
Tensile properties
fillers
Sulfur
resins
Fillers

Keywords

  • Natural rubber
  • Reinforcement
  • Rubber
  • Silane grafted NR
  • Silica

Cite this

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title = "Silane grafted natural rubber and its compatibilization effect on silica-reinforced rubber tire compounds",
abstract = "Natural Rubber (NR) grafted with 3-octanoylthio-1-propyltriethoxysilane (NXT) was prepared by melt mixing using 1,1′-di(tert-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane as initiator at 140 °C with NXT contents of 10 and 20 parts per hundred rubber [phr] and initiator 0.1 phr. The silane grafted on NR molecules was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and scanning electron icroscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Based on1H-NMR, the use of 10 and 20 phr (parts per hundred resin) of silane resulted in grafted NXT onto NR of 0.66 and 1.32 mol{\%}, respectively, or a grafting efficiency of approx.38{\%}. The use of NXT-grafted NR as compatibilizer in silica-filled NR compounds, to give a total amount of NXT in both grafted and non-grafted forms in the range of 0.8-6.1 wt{\%} relative to the silica, decreases the Mooney viscosity and Payne effect of the compounds, improves filler-rubber interaction, and significantly increases the tensile properties of the silica-filled NR-compounds compared to the non-compatibilized one. At the same silane-content, the use of silane-grafted NR gives slightly better properties than the straight use of the same silane. With sulfur compensation, the use of NXT-grafted-NR with about 6 wt{\%} NXT relative to the silica gives technical properties that reach the levels obtained for straight use of bis-(3-triethoxysilyl-propyl) tetrasulfide (TESPT) at 8.6 wt{\%} relative to the silica.",
keywords = "Natural rubber, Reinforcement, Rubber, Silane grafted NR, Silica",
author = "K. Sengloyluan and K. Sahakaro and Dierkes, {W. K.} and Noordermeer, {J. W.M.}",
year = "2017",
month = "12",
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doi = "10.3144/expresspolymlett.2017.95",
language = "English",
volume = "11",
pages = "1003--1022",
journal = "Express polymer letters",
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}

Silane grafted natural rubber and its compatibilization effect on silica-reinforced rubber tire compounds. / Sengloyluan, K.; Sahakaro, K.; Dierkes, W. K.; Noordermeer, J. W.M.

In: Express polymer letters, Vol. 11, No. 12, 01.12.2017, p. 1003-1022.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Silane grafted natural rubber and its compatibilization effect on silica-reinforced rubber tire compounds

AU - Sengloyluan, K.

AU - Sahakaro, K.

AU - Dierkes, W. K.

AU - Noordermeer, J. W.M.

PY - 2017/12/1

Y1 - 2017/12/1

N2 - Natural Rubber (NR) grafted with 3-octanoylthio-1-propyltriethoxysilane (NXT) was prepared by melt mixing using 1,1′-di(tert-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane as initiator at 140 °C with NXT contents of 10 and 20 parts per hundred rubber [phr] and initiator 0.1 phr. The silane grafted on NR molecules was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and scanning electron icroscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Based on1H-NMR, the use of 10 and 20 phr (parts per hundred resin) of silane resulted in grafted NXT onto NR of 0.66 and 1.32 mol%, respectively, or a grafting efficiency of approx.38%. The use of NXT-grafted NR as compatibilizer in silica-filled NR compounds, to give a total amount of NXT in both grafted and non-grafted forms in the range of 0.8-6.1 wt% relative to the silica, decreases the Mooney viscosity and Payne effect of the compounds, improves filler-rubber interaction, and significantly increases the tensile properties of the silica-filled NR-compounds compared to the non-compatibilized one. At the same silane-content, the use of silane-grafted NR gives slightly better properties than the straight use of the same silane. With sulfur compensation, the use of NXT-grafted-NR with about 6 wt% NXT relative to the silica gives technical properties that reach the levels obtained for straight use of bis-(3-triethoxysilyl-propyl) tetrasulfide (TESPT) at 8.6 wt% relative to the silica.

AB - Natural Rubber (NR) grafted with 3-octanoylthio-1-propyltriethoxysilane (NXT) was prepared by melt mixing using 1,1′-di(tert-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane as initiator at 140 °C with NXT contents of 10 and 20 parts per hundred rubber [phr] and initiator 0.1 phr. The silane grafted on NR molecules was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and scanning electron icroscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Based on1H-NMR, the use of 10 and 20 phr (parts per hundred resin) of silane resulted in grafted NXT onto NR of 0.66 and 1.32 mol%, respectively, or a grafting efficiency of approx.38%. The use of NXT-grafted NR as compatibilizer in silica-filled NR compounds, to give a total amount of NXT in both grafted and non-grafted forms in the range of 0.8-6.1 wt% relative to the silica, decreases the Mooney viscosity and Payne effect of the compounds, improves filler-rubber interaction, and significantly increases the tensile properties of the silica-filled NR-compounds compared to the non-compatibilized one. At the same silane-content, the use of silane-grafted NR gives slightly better properties than the straight use of the same silane. With sulfur compensation, the use of NXT-grafted-NR with about 6 wt% NXT relative to the silica gives technical properties that reach the levels obtained for straight use of bis-(3-triethoxysilyl-propyl) tetrasulfide (TESPT) at 8.6 wt% relative to the silica.

KW - Natural rubber

KW - Reinforcement

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KW - Silane grafted NR

KW - Silica

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