Objective: Single Pulse Electrical Stimulation (SPES) probes epileptogenic cortex during electrocorticography. Two SPES responses are described: pathological delayed responses (DR, >100 ms) associated with the seizure onset zone (SOZ) and physiological early responses (ER, <100 ms) that map cortical connectivity. We analyzed properties of ERs, including frequencies >80 Hz, in the SOZ and seizure propagation areas.
Methods: We used data from 12 refractory epilepsy patients. SPES consisted of 10 pulses of 1 ms, 4–8 mA and 5 s interval on adjacent electrodes pairs. Data were available at 2048 samples/s for six and 512 samples/s (22 bits) for eight patients and analyzed in the time–frequency (TF) and time-domain (TD).
Results: Electrodes with ERs were stronger associated with SOZ than non-SOZ electrodes. ERs with frequency content >80 Hz exist and are specific for SOZ channels. ERs evoked by stimulation of seizure onset electrodes were associated with electrodes involved in seizure propagation.
Conclusion: Analysis of ERs can reveal aspects of pathology, manifested by association with seizure propagation and areas with high ER numbers that coincide with the SOZ.
Significance: Not only DRs, but also ERs could have clinical value for mapping epileptogenic cortex and help to unravel aspects of the epileptic network.
- High frequency oscillations
- Intracranial electrodes
- evoked potentials
- Electrical stimulation
- Epilepsy surgery