Sintering and densification; new techniques: Sinter forging

A. J.A. Winnubst*, M. M.R. Boutz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
1 Downloads (Pure)


In this chapter pressure assisted sintering methods will be described. Attention will mainly be paid to sinter forging as a die-wall free uniaxial pressure sintering technique, where large creep strains are possible. Sinter forging is an effective tool to reduce sintering temperature and time and to obtain a nearly theoretically dense ceramic. In this way grain size in tetragonal zirconia ceramics can be reduced down to 100 nm. Another important phenomenon is the reduction of the number density and size of cracks and flaws resulting in higher strength and improved reliability, which is of utmost importance for engineering ceramics. The creep deformation during sinter forging causes a rearrangement of the grains resulting in a reduction of interatomic spaces between grains, while grain boundary (glassy) phases can be removed. The toughness and in some cases the wear resistance is enhanced after sinter forging as a result of the grain-boundary-morphology improvement.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)301-323
Number of pages23
JournalKey engineering materials
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 1998


  • Constitutive Equations
  • Creep
  • Densification
  • Hot Isostatic Pressing
  • Hot Pressing
  • Kinetics
  • Microstructure
  • Properties
  • Sinter Forging
  • Sintering
  • Stress Multiplication


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