We describe details of a solar driven pervaporation process for the production of desalinated water from highly contaminated waters. The membrane material is a polyetheramide-based polymer film of 40 ¿m thickness. This Solar Dew® membrane is used in a tubular configuration in a direct solar membrane pervaporation process. The feed waters used in this study are untreated seawater and waste water that is simultaneously produced with the mineral oil extraction. In all cases retention of typical ions as sodium, chloride and calcium as well as specific problematic ions (arsenic, boron and fluoride) was higher than data reported for pressure driven membrane processes like NF and RO. The condensate quality was well within WHO limits for drinking water. A reduction of almost five orders of magnitude in conductivity between brine and condensate could be realized, producing condensate with conductivities of 5 ¿S/cm or lower. Laboratory experiments show that the measured fluxes are independent of severe fouling and virtually independent of concentration up to 100 g/l total solids.
|Journal||Journal of membrane science|
|Publication status||Published - 2005|