Solid contact potassium selective electrodes for biomedical applications – a review

Lennart van de Velde, E. d'Angremont, Wouter Olthuis

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    Ion-selective electrodes (ISE) are used in several biomedical applications, including laboratory sensing of potassium concentration in blood and urine samples. For on-site determination of potassium concentration and usage in other applications such as determination of extracellular potassium concentration, miniaturization of the sensors is required. To that extent, solid contacts have proven to be an adequate substitute of liquid contacts as inner layer for ion-to-electron transduction, allowing industrial production of miniaturized ISEs. This review paper covers relevant developments of solid-state ISEs in the past decade, critically compares current potassium ISEs and discusses future prospects for biomedical applications. Performances of three main types of solid contact materials in potassium sensing are compared, namely polypyrrole, polythiophenes and conducting nanomaterials. With these new materials, numerous improvements in stability, selectivity and time response of solid-state ISEs have been made. Current developments are new operational methods of sensing, flexible miniaturized sensors and multi-electrode designs able to measure electrolyte concentrations in one-drop blood samples or transmembrane ionic flows.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)56-65
    Number of pages10
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2016


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