Solid Waste and Water Quality Management Models for Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone, Nepal.

Emanuela Chiara Manfredi (Corresponding Author), Bastian Flury, Gaetano Viviano, Sudeep Thakuri, Sanjay Nath Khanal, Pramod Kumar Jha, Ramesh Kumar Maskey, Rijan Bhakta Kayastha, Kumud Raj Kafle, Silu Bhochhibhoya, Narayan Prasad Ghimire, Bharat Babu Shrestha, Gyanendra Chaudhary, Francesco Giannino, Fabrizio Carteni, Stefano Mazzoleni, Franco Salerno

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    Abstract

    The problem of supporting decision- and policy-makers in managing issues related to solid waste and water quality was addressed within the context of a participatory modeling framework in the Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone in Nepal. We present the main findings of management-oriented research projects conducted within this framework, thus providing an overview of the current situation in the park regarding solid waste and water quality issues. We found that most of the solid waste generated in the park is composed of organic matter, paper, and minor reused waste that is mainly reused for cattle feeding and manure, while disposal of other nondegradable categories of collected waste (glass, metal, and plastic) is not properly managed. Particularly, burning or disposal in open dumps poses a great hazard to environmental, human, and animal health, as most dump sites situated close to water courses are prone to regular flooding during the rainy season, thereby directly contaminating river water. Pollutants and microbiological contamination in water bodies were found and anthropogenic activities and hazardous practices such as solid waste dump sites, open defecation, and poor conditions of existing septic tanks are suggested as possibly affecting water quality. Collection of these data on solid waste and water quality and compilation of management information on the targeted social-ecological system allowed us to develop consensus-building models to be used as management supporting tools. By implementing such models, we were able to simulate scenarios identifying and evaluating possible management solutions and interventions in the park. This work reveals insights into general dynamics that can support the quest for solutions to waste and water quality management problems in other protected areas and mountain landscapes where traditional livelihood and land use patterns are changing under the influence of a growing population, changing consumption patterns, and international tourism.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)127-142
    Number of pages16
    JournalMountain research and development
    Volume30
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2010

    Fingerprint

    quality management
    buffer zone
    Quality management
    Solid wastes
    Nepal
    national park
    solid waste
    Water quality
    Buffers
    water
    water quality
    Water
    Septic tanks
    defecation
    international tourism
    information management
    Manures
    Waste disposal
    Land use
    Biological materials

    Cite this

    Manfredi, E. C., Flury, B., Viviano, G., Thakuri, S., Khanal, S. N., Jha, P. K., ... Salerno, F. (2010). Solid Waste and Water Quality Management Models for Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone, Nepal. Mountain research and development, 30(2), 127-142. https://doi.org/10.1659/MRD-JOURNAL-D-10-00028.1
    Manfredi, Emanuela Chiara ; Flury, Bastian ; Viviano, Gaetano ; Thakuri, Sudeep ; Khanal, Sanjay Nath ; Jha, Pramod Kumar ; Maskey, Ramesh Kumar ; Kayastha, Rijan Bhakta ; Kafle, Kumud Raj ; Bhochhibhoya, Silu ; Ghimire, Narayan Prasad ; Shrestha, Bharat Babu ; Chaudhary, Gyanendra ; Giannino, Francesco ; Carteni, Fabrizio ; Mazzoleni, Stefano ; Salerno, Franco. / Solid Waste and Water Quality Management Models for Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone, Nepal. In: Mountain research and development. 2010 ; Vol. 30, No. 2. pp. 127-142.
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    abstract = "The problem of supporting decision- and policy-makers in managing issues related to solid waste and water quality was addressed within the context of a participatory modeling framework in the Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone in Nepal. We present the main findings of management-oriented research projects conducted within this framework, thus providing an overview of the current situation in the park regarding solid waste and water quality issues. We found that most of the solid waste generated in the park is composed of organic matter, paper, and minor reused waste that is mainly reused for cattle feeding and manure, while disposal of other nondegradable categories of collected waste (glass, metal, and plastic) is not properly managed. Particularly, burning or disposal in open dumps poses a great hazard to environmental, human, and animal health, as most dump sites situated close to water courses are prone to regular flooding during the rainy season, thereby directly contaminating river water. Pollutants and microbiological contamination in water bodies were found and anthropogenic activities and hazardous practices such as solid waste dump sites, open defecation, and poor conditions of existing septic tanks are suggested as possibly affecting water quality. Collection of these data on solid waste and water quality and compilation of management information on the targeted social-ecological system allowed us to develop consensus-building models to be used as management supporting tools. By implementing such models, we were able to simulate scenarios identifying and evaluating possible management solutions and interventions in the park. This work reveals insights into general dynamics that can support the quest for solutions to waste and water quality management problems in other protected areas and mountain landscapes where traditional livelihood and land use patterns are changing under the influence of a growing population, changing consumption patterns, and international tourism.",
    author = "Manfredi, {Emanuela Chiara} and Bastian Flury and Gaetano Viviano and Sudeep Thakuri and Khanal, {Sanjay Nath} and Jha, {Pramod Kumar} and Maskey, {Ramesh Kumar} and Kayastha, {Rijan Bhakta} and Kafle, {Kumud Raj} and Silu Bhochhibhoya and Ghimire, {Narayan Prasad} and Shrestha, {Bharat Babu} and Gyanendra Chaudhary and Francesco Giannino and Fabrizio Carteni and Stefano Mazzoleni and Franco Salerno",
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    Manfredi, EC, Flury, B, Viviano, G, Thakuri, S, Khanal, SN, Jha, PK, Maskey, RK, Kayastha, RB, Kafle, KR, Bhochhibhoya, S, Ghimire, NP, Shrestha, BB, Chaudhary, G, Giannino, F, Carteni, F, Mazzoleni, S & Salerno, F 2010, 'Solid Waste and Water Quality Management Models for Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone, Nepal.', Mountain research and development, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 127-142. https://doi.org/10.1659/MRD-JOURNAL-D-10-00028.1

    Solid Waste and Water Quality Management Models for Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone, Nepal. / Manfredi, Emanuela Chiara (Corresponding Author); Flury, Bastian; Viviano, Gaetano; Thakuri, Sudeep; Khanal, Sanjay Nath; Jha, Pramod Kumar; Maskey, Ramesh Kumar; Kayastha, Rijan Bhakta; Kafle, Kumud Raj; Bhochhibhoya, Silu ; Ghimire, Narayan Prasad; Shrestha, Bharat Babu; Chaudhary, Gyanendra ; Giannino, Francesco; Carteni, Fabrizio; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Salerno, Franco.

    In: Mountain research and development, Vol. 30, No. 2, 2010, p. 127-142.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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    AU - Flury, Bastian

    AU - Viviano, Gaetano

    AU - Thakuri, Sudeep

    AU - Khanal, Sanjay Nath

    AU - Jha, Pramod Kumar

    AU - Maskey, Ramesh Kumar

    AU - Kayastha, Rijan Bhakta

    AU - Kafle, Kumud Raj

    AU - Bhochhibhoya, Silu

    AU - Ghimire, Narayan Prasad

    AU - Shrestha, Bharat Babu

    AU - Chaudhary, Gyanendra

    AU - Giannino, Francesco

    AU - Carteni, Fabrizio

    AU - Mazzoleni, Stefano

    AU - Salerno, Franco

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