Solidification of liquid metal drops during impact

Marise V. Gielen, Rielle de Ruiter, Robin B.J. Koldeweij, Detlef Lohse, Jacco H. Snoeijer, Hanneke Gelderblom*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

38 Citations (Scopus)
70 Downloads (Pure)


Hot liquid metal drops impacting onto a cold substrate solidify during their subsequent spreading. Here we experimentally study the influence of solidification on the outcome of an impact event. Liquid tin drops are impacted onto sapphire substrates of varying temperature. The impact is visualised both from the side and from below, which provides a unique view on the solidification process. During spreading, an intriguing pattern of radial ligaments rapidly solidifies from the centre of the drop. This pattern determines the late-time morphology of the splat. A quantitative analysis of the drop spreading and ligament formation is supported by scaling arguments. Finally, a phase diagram for drop bouncing, deposition and splashing as a function of substrate temperature and impact velocity is provided.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberA32
JournalJournal of fluid mechanics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 25 Jan 2020


  • UT-Hybrid-D
  • Solidification/melting


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