SomBe: Self-Organizing Map for Unstructured and Non-Coordinated iBeacon Constellations

Duc V. Le, Wouter A.P. Van Kleunen, Thuong Nguyen, Nirvana Meratnia, Paul J.M. Havinga

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

    2 Citations (Scopus)
    1 Downloads (Pure)


    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) devices such as iBeacons have been popularly deployed for Location Based Services (LBS), including indoor infrastructure monitoring, positioning, and navigation. In these applications, the positions of iBeacons are assumed to be known. However, the location information is often unavailable or inaccurate as most iBeacons were deployed by different external parties. In addition, manual localizing the already-deployed iBeacons is costly and even impractical, especially in large-scale and complex indoor environments. Therefore, we propose a novel method, namely SomeBe, which can localize deployed iBeacons with a minimal effort and invasiveness to existing infrastructures. Specifically, our approach uses cooperative multilateration based on Received Signal Strength (RSS) of available smartphones and WiFi access points (APs) in the environment. Both Bluetooth signal strengths (between smartphones and iBeacons) and WiFi signal strengths (between smartphones and APs) are jointly employed in a single optimization cost function to surpass the local minima. Requiring that the positions of the APs are known only, the proposed cost function can also localize the iBeacons without knowing the positions of smartphones. To improve the localization accuracy, we employ a clustering method based on the RSS values for the coarse estimation of iBeacons' positions. SomBe also can be used to simplify iBeacon deployment as it can localize the iBeacons with a minimal effort. The performance evaluation results of our testbed experiments as well as realistic simulations show that SomBe outperforms non-cooperative approaches with 85% better in terms of accuracy.

    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publication2018 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications, PerCom 2018
    ISBN (Print)9781538632246
    Publication statusPublished - 19 Mar 2018
    Event2018 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications 2018 - Athens, Greece
    Duration: 19 Mar 201823 Mar 2018


    Conference2018 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications 2018
    Abbreviated titlePerCOM 2018


    • iBeacon localization
    • location-based service
    • RSS-based localization
    • self-organizing iBeacons
    • WiFi localization


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