Space-time modeling of landslide size by combining static, dynamic, and unobserved spatiotemporal factors

Zhice Fang, Yi Wang*, Cees van Westen, Luigi Lombardo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Landslide spatial prediction using data-driven models has predominantly concentrated on predicting where landslides may occur. Nevertheless, few researchers have turned to jointly modeling how large and when landslides will be for a given terrain unit. This study proposes a data-driven model capable of estimating how large landslides may be, for the entire Taiwan main island in a fourteen-year time window. To address this task, we implement a space–time generalized additive model to fit the complex relationships between environmental factors and landslide size. In addition to incorporating static and dynamic covariates into the modeling process, the model takes into account spatial and temporal interactions to elucidate the spatiotemporal variations affecting landslide size. To test the effectiveness of the model, we employ a comprehensive set of cross-validation (CV) procedures, includes a randomized 10fold-CV, a spatially constrained CV, a temporal leave-one-year-out CV, and a spatio-temporal CV. The experimental results demonstrate that the space–time model delivers acceptable and interpretable prediction outcomes, demonstrating the ability to predict landslide area for a given slope unit within a specified time period. We believe that the space–time landslide modeling will lay the foundation for landslide community to analyze landslide characteristic within a dynamic context. Furthermore, given its inherent spatio-temporal nature, we anticipate that this approach may pave the way for simulation studies exploring diverse climate scenarios.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107989
Publication statusPublished - May 2024


  • Dynamic landslide area prediction
  • Slope unit
  • Space–time modeling
  • Spatio-temporal cross-validation


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