Spatial mapping of photovoltage and light-induced displacement of on-chip coupled piezo/photodiodes by Kelvin probe force microscopy under modulated illumination

Zeinab Eftekhari*, Nasim Rezaei, Hidde Stokkel, Jian Yao Zheng, Andrea Cerreta, Ilka Hermes, Minh Nguyen, Guus Rijnders, Rebecca Saive

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

In this work, a silicon photodiode integrated with a piezoelectric membrane is studied by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) under modulated illumination. Time-dependent KPFM enables simultaneous quantification of the surface photovoltage generated by the photodiode as well as the resulting mechanical oscillation of the piezoelectric membrane with vertical atomic resolution in real-time. This technique offers the opportunity to measure concurrently the optoelectronic and mechanical response of the device at the nanoscale. Furthermore, time-dependent atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to spatially map voltage-induced oscillation of various sizes of piezoelectric membranes without the photodiode to investigate their position-and size-dependent displacement.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1059-1067
Number of pages9
JournalBeilstein journal of nanotechnology
Volume14
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Keywords

  • Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM)
  • light-driven micro/nano systems
  • piezoelectric membrane
  • surface photovoltage (SPV)
  • time-dependent AFM

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