Spatio-temporal landslide inventory and susceptibility assessment using Sentinel-2 in the Himalayan mountainous region of Pakistan

Alam Sher Bacha*, Muhammad Shafique, H. van der Werff, M. van der Meijde, Mian Luqman Hussain, Sohail Wahid

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
144 Downloads (Pure)


The 2005 Kashmir earthquake has triggered widespread landslides in the Himalayan mountains in northern Pakistan and surrounding areas, some of which are active and are still posing a significant risk. Landslides triggered by the 2005 Kashmir earthquake are extensively studied; nevertheless, spatio-temporal landslide susceptibility assessment is lacking. This can be partially attributed to the limited availability of high temporal resolution remote sensing data. We present a semi-automated technique to use the Sentinel-2 MSI data for co-seismic landslide detection, landslide activities monitoring, spatio-temporal change detection, and spatio-temporal susceptibility mapping. Time series Sentinel-2 MSI images for the period of 2016–2021 and ALOS PALSAR DEM are used for semi-automated landslide inventory map development and temporal change analysis. Spectral information combined with topographical, contextual, textural, and morphological characteristics of the landslide in Sentinel-2 images is applied for landslide detection. Subsequently, spatio-temporal landslide susceptibility maps are developed utilizing the weight of evidence statistical modeling with seven causative factors, i.e., elevation, slope, geology, aspect, distance to fault, distance to roads, and distance to streams. The results reveal that landslide occurrence increased from 2016 to 2021 and that the coverage of areas of relatively high susceptibility has increased in the study area.

Original languageEnglish
Article number845
JournalEnvironmental monitoring and assessment
Issue number11
Early online date30 Sept 2022
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022


  • Himalaya
  • Landslide
  • Object-based image analysis
  • Sentinel-2 MSI
  • Spatial and temporal changes
  • Susceptibility mapping
  • 22/4 OA procedure


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