Spatiotemporal control over engineered tissues is highly desirable for various biomedical applications as it emulates the dynamic behavior of natural tissues. Current spatiotemporal biomaterial functionalization approaches are based on cytotoxic, technically challenging, or non-scalable chemistries, which has hampered their widespread usage. Here we report a strategy to spatiotemporally functionalize (bio)materials based on competitive supramolecular complexation of avidin and biotin analogs. Specifically, an injectable hydrogel is orthogonally post-functionalized with desthiobiotinylated moieties using multivalent neutravidin. In situ exchange of desthiobiotin by biotin enables spatiotemporal material functionalization as demonstrated by the formation of long-range, conformal, and contra-directional biochemical gradients within complex-shaped 3D hydrogels. Temporal control over engineered tissue biochemistry is further demonstrated by timed presentation and sequestration of growth factors using desthiobiotinylated antibodies. The method's universality is confirmed by modifying hydrogels with biotinylated fluorophores, peptides, nanoparticles, enzymes, and antibodies. Overall, this work provides a facile, cytocompatible, and universal strategy to spatiotemporally functionalize materials.