Speed-dependent reference joint trajectory generation for robotic gait support

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For the control of actuated orthoses, or gait rehabilitation robotics, kinematic reference trajectories are often required. These trajectories, consisting of joint angles, angular velocities and accelerations, are highly dependent on walking-speed. We present and evaluate a novel method to reconstruct body-height and speed-dependent joint trajectories. First, we collected gait kinematics in fifteen healthy (middle) aged subjects (47–68), at a wide range of walking-speeds (0.5–5 kph). For each joint trajectory multiple key-events were selected (among which its extremes). Second, we derived regression-models that predict the timing, angle, angular velocity and acceleration for each key-event, based on walking-speed and the subject׳s body-height. Finally, quintic splines were fitted between the predicted key-events to reconstruct a full gait cycle. Regression-models were obtained for hip ab-/adduction, hip flexion/extension, knee flexion/extension and ankle plantar-/dorsiflexion. Results showed that the majority of the key-events were dependent on walking-speed, both in terms of timing and amplitude, whereas the body-height had less effect. The reconstructed trajectories matched the measured trajectories very well, in terms of angle, angular velocity and acceleration. For the angles the RMSE between the reconstructed and measured trajectories was 2.6°. The mean correlation coefficient between the reconstructed and measured angular trajectories was 0.91. The method and the data presented in this paper can be used to generate speed-dependent gait patterns. These patterns can be used for the control of several robotic gait applications. Alternatively they can assist the assessment of pathological gait, where they can serve as a reference for “normal” gait.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1447-1458
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of biomechanics
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • IR-96598
  • METIS-307710


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